Varieties Of Ginger

By Agropedia on 19 Apr 2016

Ginger, botanically known as Zingiber officinale Rosc. is one of the most important and widely used spices worldwide. It is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, but was under cultivation from ancient times in India and China. India is the largest producer of ginger.  Ginger has rich cultivar diversity. Several cultivars of ginger are grown in different ginger growing areas in India and they are generally named after the localities where they are grown. Improved varieties of ginger have also been developed. 

 Local cultivars/ land races of ginger

Sl No.CultivarCharacteristicsFresh mean yield (t/ha) Maturity (days)Dry recovery (%)Crude fibre (%) Oleoresin (%) Essential oil (%)Disease resistanceWidely cultivated in 
1ChinaBold rhizome, high yield, low crude fibre9.5200213.40%71.9 Kerala 
2AssamHigh green ginger yield, low recovery of dry ginger, high oleoresin content11.78210185.87.92.2 Kerala
3Maran High fresh and dry yield, high oleoresin and essential oil  content.  High gingerol and shogaol25.21200206.1101.9Less susceptible  to rhizome rot and leaf spot.Kerala, Tamilnadu
4HimachalHigh fresh and dry yield. 7.2720022.13.85.30.5Less susceptible to rhizome rotHimachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
5NadiaHigh fresh and dry yield, low crude fibre percentage, high gingerol and shogaol.  28.5520022.63.95.41.4Less susceptible to leaf spot.Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal
6Rio de JaneiroHigh fresh and dry yield, high oleoresin, high essential oil, high gingerol and shogaol. 17.65190205.610.52.3Tolerant to shoot borer. Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

 

Improved varieties of Ginger
Sl No. Variety CharacteristicsPedigree/ parentageFresh mean yield (t/ha)Maturity (days)Dry recovery  (%)Crude fibre (%)Oleoresin (%)Essential oil (%)Area of adaptabilitySource
1IISR VaradaHigh fresh and dry yield, high dry recovery, resistant to storage pest, plumpy rhizomes having falttened fingers and medium sized reddish brown scales.Selection from germplasm22.620020.74.56.71.8Suitable for all ginger growing areas in IndiaIndian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
2Suprabha High yield (fresh and dry), plumpy rhizome, less fibre,wide adaptability,suitable for both early and late sowing.Clonal selection from Kunduli local16.622920.54.48.91.9OrissaHigh Altitude Research Centre, Orissa 
3SuruchiHigh yield (fresh and dry), slender rhizome, high dry recovery.Clonal selection from Kunduli local11.621823.53.8102OrissaHigh Altitude Research Centre, Orissa 
4SuraviPlumpy rhizome, dark skinned yellow fleshed.Induced mutant of Rudrapur local17.522523.5410.22.1OrissaHigh Altitude Research Centre, Orissa 
5HimagiriBest for green ginger less susceptible to rhizome rot disease, suitable for rainfed condition.Clonal selection from Himachal collection13.523020.66.44.31.6 Dr. Y.S. Parmer University of Horticulture and Forestry, Himachal Pradesh.
6IISR MahimaHigh yielder,plumpy extra bold rhizomes, resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica pathotype 1Selection from germplasm23.2200233.24.41.7KeralaIndian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
7IISR Rajatha High yielder,plumpy and bold rhizome.Selection from germplasm22.42001946.32.3KeralaIndian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
8Athira Bold rhizomes with many and small internodes. Tolerant to soft rot and bacterial wilt than the parent cultivar.Selection from somaclones of cultivar Maran21-30 220-24022.63.46.83.1Suitable for warm humid tropicsDept. of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Horticulture, KAU, Thrissur

 

Karthika is yet another improved variety developed from the local cultivar Maran by the Dept. of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Horticulture, KAU, Thrissur.

Other Cultivars/ varieties

Wynad local:  High yielding variety (fresh and dry) with high oleoresin content and zerumbone content. This variety is suitable for cultivation in Karnataka and Kerala. Dry recovery: 19.4 %, Crude fibre: 4.7, Oleoresin: 9.1.

Thingpui: High yielding variety (fresh and dry) with high dry recovery percentage, high gingerol and shogaol content. Suitable for cultivation in Kerala, Meghalaya and Mizoram. Fresh mean yield: 24.475, Crude fibre: 8.1, Oleoresin: 6.2, Essential oil: 1.4.

Kuruppampadi: Variety with high dry recovery percentage, high oleoresin content and low crude fibre percentage.  Mainly cultivated in Kerala and Orissa. Dry recovery: 23 %, Crude fibre: 4.7, Oleoresin: 7.1.

Jorhat:  Variety with high dry recovery percentage, and high gingerol and shogaol content. Rhizome rot is of least incidence in this variety. Suitable for cultivation in Karnataka.  Dry recovery: 20.6, Crude fibre: 5.7, Oleoresin: 5.7, Essential oil: 2.

Narasapattom: Least susceptible to rhizome rot and yields high amount of dry ginger (3.80 t/ha). Suitable for cultivation in Kerala.

Tura: Variety with high dry recovery percentage and low crude fibre. This variety is least infested with root knot nematode. Suitable for cultivation in Meghalaya.  Dry recovery: 28 %, Crude fibre: 3.5 %.

Poona: This is a variety with low crude fibre percentage.  It is also less susceptible to rhizome rot. Cultivated in Maharashtra and Meghalaya. Crude fibre: 4.62 %.

Bajpai: This variety is most tolerant to leaf spot. Suitable for cultivation in Kerala. Essential oil: 1.7 %, Fibre: 5.5%, Oleoresin: 5.8. 

Kunduli local: Characterized by slender rhizome and low susceptibility to leaf spot.

Mananthavady: Characterized by high oleoresin content and high essential oil percentage.  Cultivated in Kerala. Essential oil; 2.2 %, Oleoresin: 9.2%.

Thinladium: Variety with high dry recovery percentage and low crude fibre percentage. Suitable for cultivation in Mizoram and Nagaland. Dry recovery: 21.03 %, Crude fibre: 5.01 %.

Jamaica:  Characterized by low crude fibre percentage and low susceptibility to rhizome rot. Cultivated in Kerala.

Karakkal: High yielding variety (fresh and dry) with high essential oil content. Essential oil: 2.4 %.

Ernad: Characterized by high dry recovery, high oleoresin, low crude fibre percentage and high gingerol and shogaol content. Dry recovery: 24.37 %, Crude fibre; 4.43 %. Cultivated in Kerala.

Ernad Chernad: It is a variety with high oleoresin content and low crude fibre content.  It also contains high amounts of gingerol and shogaol.

Vengara: Variety with high dry recovery (25 %) and high essential oil (2.3 %) content.

Sierra leone: It is a variety with high dry recovery percentage. Rhizome rot is of least incidence in this variety.

Thodupuzha: It is a variety with high dry recovery percentage (22.6 %) and high essential oil content.

Sabarimala: It is a wild type variety with high essential oil content.

Elakallan: It is a wild type variety with high essential oil content.

Gorubathan:  A variety with bold rhizomes best suited for cultivation in West Bengal.

Pulpally: It is a variety with high essential oil, high oleoresin, high gingerol and shogaol content.

Anamika: It is a high yielding variety (fresh and dry). The incidence of attack by rhizome scale is least in this variety.

Baharica: Characterized by the presence of high gingerol, shogaol and zingiberene content.

Amaravathy: Characterized by the presence of high gingerol, shogaol and zingiberene content.

Valluvanad: Infestation by root knot nematode is very low in this variety. It also has high essential oil content (2.2 %).

Kunnamangalam: A variety with high oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol content.

Taffingiva: Characterized by bold rhizomes. It is also most tolerant to leaf spot.

Jugijan: High yielding variety (fresh and dry). It is also moderately tolerant to rhizome rot disease.

Nariyanpara: Variety with high gingerol and shogaol content.

Zahirabad: Variety with high dry recovery and low crude fibre percentage.

Mowshom: Variety with high dry recovery percentage.

Erattupetta: Variety with high oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol content.

Buderim gold: It is a variety developed by Buderim Ginger Co. in Queensland, Australia. It is an induced tetraploid of cv. Queensland local. It is reported to be a high yielder with plumpy rhizomes.

4x Sanshu: it is an induced tetraploid of cv. Sanshu, developed in Japan. It is reported to be a high yielding variety.  

Bhaise, Santhing pui, Santhing Pin, Thamarassery local, Nadan pulpally, Chanog-II, Shilli, Bangi, Mizo, Kakkakalan etc. are also varieties of ginger.

Reference

P.N. Ravindran and K. Nirmal Babu, Ginger -The Genus Zingiber, CRC Press, 2005, pp. 54-76. V. A. Parthasarathy, K. Kandiannan, V.Srinivasan, Organic Spices, New India Publishing, 2008. V. A. Parthasarathy, A. I. Bhatt, Utpala Parthasarathy, Spice Crops, Today’s and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, 2008, pp. 292- 304. B. Sasikumar, K.V. Saji et al., IISR Mahima and IISR Rejatha –two high yielding and high quality Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) varieties, Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 12(1): 34-37 (2003). Ginger- Extension pamphlet, Indian Institute of Spices Research, 2008. Kerala Agriculture University- Agri- Infotech portal. All India coordinated Research project on Spices, Varieties of spice crops released through All India coordinated Research Project on Spices, 2014.