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BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum) VARIETIES
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is grown mainly for their berry which is extensively used as spice and in medicine. It is cultivated to a large extent in Kerala and Karnataka and to a limited extent in Tamil Nadu and other states. Over 100 cultivars of pepper have been reported from Kerala and Karnataka. Local cultivar diversity is the richest in Kerala, followed by Karnataka. Unlike the wild forms of P.nigrum, which are mostly dioecious, most cultivated ones are bisexual. Intra-cultivar variability has also been reported in the case of certain local cultivars grown extensively.
Nedumchola: A cultivar with small leaves and short spikes, moderate yielder.
Kottan: Moderate yielder, medium in quality.
Chengannurkodi: Moderate yielder from South Kerala, medium in quality.
Cheppakulamundi: Moderate yielder from Central Kerala, medium in quality.
Jeerakamundi: Cultivar with small leaves and short spikes with high spiking intensity, alternate bearing nature, small berries.
Vattamundi: A moderate yielder from Central Kerala.
Thulamundi: A Central Kerala cultivar, medium in yield and quality.
Poonjaranmunda: A cultivar with long spikes originally from Central Kerala, sporadically found in gardens of North Kerala, moderately good in yield and quality.
Kuttianikodi: A moderate yielder from Central Kerala with relatively long spikes and good spiking intensity.
Malamundi: A moderate yielder, medium in quality.
Manjamundi: Moderate yielder, medium in quality.
Neyyattinkaramundi: A cultivar from Central Kerala, medium in quality and yield.
Perambramunda: Moderate yielder, medium in quality.
Neelamundi: A good yielder from Central Kerala, medium in quality. Tolerant to Phytophthora infection.
Reference:The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Products, Vol. 8, Ph-Re, Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, 1969. H. P. Singh, V. A. Parthasarathy. V. Srinivasan and K. V. Saji. Piperaceae Crops- Production and Utilization-Black Pepper, Betelvine and others. Westville Publishing House, New Delhi, First Edition, 2012. Sasikumar B., Thankamani C. K., Srinivasan V., Devasahayam S., Santhosh J Eapen., Suseela Bhai R and John Zacharaiah T. Black Pepper (Extension Pamphlet), October 2008, Indian Institute of Spices Research. Ravindran P. N., Nirmal Babu K., Shiva K. N and Johny A. Kallupurackal. Advances in Spices Research-History and Achievements of Spices Research in India Since Independence. Agrobios (India) publishing, 2006. E. V. Nybe, N. Miniraj and K. V. Peter. Spices. Horticultural Science Series, Vol.5, New India Publishing Agency, 2007. Henry N. Ridley. Spices. International Book Distributors, 1983, 243-250. K. G. Shanmugavelu and V. N. Madhava Rao. Spices and Plantation Crops. Popular Book Depot, First edition, 1977. KAU Agri Infotech Portal. Pepper varieties. www.ipcnet.org. KAU Pepper Varieties: Panniyur-6 and Panniyur-7. http://www.kau.edu/KAUPepper.html.