Turmeric: Crop Stage-wise IPM

By Vikaspedia on 29 Nov 2016

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http://vikaspedia.in
ManagementActivities Pre-sowing* Nutrients • Turmeric crop requires clean cultivation and fi ne tilth.
• Turmeric needs very heavy manuring during the four months period after planting. Crop requires 120 Kg N, 50 Kg P2O5 and 80 Kg K 2O per acre in organic and inorganic forms.
• The NPK requirement has to be applied in two or three splits. The first dose of N has to be applied before planting through inorganic sources.
• Use 10 t/ acre Farmyard manure or 4 t / acre vermicompost at the time of field preparation.
• Apply castor or neem cake @ 200 Kg/ acre.
• Incorporate manure / compost in soil at 2 -3 weeks before planting.
• Use coir compost @ 1 t/acre combined with FYM, biofertilizers (Azospirillum).
• Use leguminous green manure crops like pigeon pea, black gram, cowpea, cluster bean and French bean and incorporate in soil before planting.
Weeds • Deep summer ploughing and solarisation during summer reduces weed infestation, soil borne diseases, nematodes, etc.
• Use raised beds (30 cm with 1 meter width).
• At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize weeds menace in field.
Pests, nematode, soil borne pathogens and other diseases Cultural control:
• Deep summer ploughing during summer.
• Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil borne pests.
Biological control:
• At the time of planting, apply 25 g powdered neem cake and mix well with the soil in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows or application of neem cake @ 2 t/ acre is also desirable.
Rhizome rot/ soft rot Cultural control:
• Use of resistant varieties to rhizome wilt/ rot.
• Crop rotation with maize, cotton, soybean.
• Planting of disease-free seed rhizomes.
• Use raised beds of 30 cm height.
• Flooding treatment for 30 days, soil solarisation during hottest months for 60 days
• Treat the rhizomes with hot water at 51° C for 10 minutes.
• Rhizomes treatment can be done by keeping them under clear polythene sheet under direct sunlight for raising the temperature 48o C and this temperature is retained for 30 minutes.
• Use bio-fumigation using cabbage and mustard plant refuses.
• Use raised beds of 15-30 cm height, 1 m width and of convenient length may be prepared giving at least 50 cm spacing between beds.
Biological control:
• Planting of perennial / seasonal flowering plants like basil, marigold, fennel, sunflower etc. along the border to attract and enhance the population of biocontrol agents for managing pests/disease.
• Application of pine needle and neem cake powder treatments @ 100 Kg/ acre (in two splits)
• Application of oil cakes made from Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Pongamia glabra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Brassica campestris @ 0.8 tonnes/ acre
Bacterial wilt** Cultural control:
• Soil solarisation for 60 days during summer
• Planting of disease-free seed rhizomes.
• Use crop rotation with non-host crops like ragi, paddy, maize, sorghum etc.
• Avoid crop rotation with tomato, potato, chillies, brinjal and peanut, as these plants are hosts for the wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.
• Rhizome treatment with hot water 47oC for 3 minutes.
• Use bio-fumigation using cabbage and mustard plant refuses.
• Avoid over irrigation, and flood irrigation in disease affected areas.
• It is sensitive to high pH (alkaline soils).
Planting/ seedling stage* Nutrients • The NPK requirement has to be applied in two or three splits. The first dose of N has to be applied before planting through inorganic sources.
• Apply P2O5 @ 24 Kg/acre as basal dose at the time of planting/ sowing.
• Apply K2O @ 16 Kg/acre as basal dose at the time of planting/ sowing.
• In zinc deficient areas, apply zinc sulphate @ 8 Kg/acre.
Weeds • Green mulching: The first mulching is done at the time of planting with green leaves @ 4.8- 6 tones /acre. Mulching is to be repeated @ 3 tones /acre at 45 and 90 days after planting, immediately after weeding, application of fertilizers and earthing up. Rhizome rot/soft rot Cultural control:
• Maintain proper drainage by using 30 cm raised bed and avoiding the water stagnation
• Adopt phyto sanitary measures like infected plants should be uprooted and destroyed.
• Adopt crop rotation with non-host crops like ragi, paddy, maize, sorghum etc.
• Mulching with green leaves (Lantana camara and Vitex negundo) @ 4- 4.8 t/acre at the time of planting. (It is repeated @ 5 t/acre 40 and 90 days after planting).
Biological control:
• Foliar application of neem oil @ 0.5% twice at fortnightly interval.
• Cow dung slurry or liquid manure may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability Use Fermented Plant Extract (FPE) prepared by using (garlic + onion leaves + Canabis sp + wild poisonous plant) + (cow urine) + (EM solution) + (extract after washing polished rice) + (alcohol) + (water) (1:1:1:1:1:15), sufficient for 1.0 ha for seed treatment against soft rot.
• FPE to be applied after every fortnight by using watering can for next 2 month i.e. up to July end.
Rhizome-scale Cultural control:
• Collect and destroy severely infested rhizomes.
• Collect and destroy damaged leaves
• Select healthy rhizomes free from scale infestation for using sowing purpose
Vegetative & rhizome development stage
Nutrients • Top dressing of N in three splits is done at regular periods just after each weeding at monthly intervals.
• Apply castor or neem cake @ 200 Kg/ acre (if not applied at sowing) along with 24 Kg of Nitrogen through urea near the rhizomes at 40 days after planting.
• Apply 24 Kg nitrogen and 16 Kg potash/ acre at 80 days after planting.
• The final dose of 20 Kg nitrogen and 14 Kg potash/ acre should be applied at 120 days after planting followed by eating up of the crop.
• Fertilizer application should be completed within 120 days from the time of planting.
• Chemical fertilizers should be applied along with FYM and organic cakes.
• As and when micro-nutrient deficiencies like zinc, manganese etc., are observed, it should be corrected by foliar spray.
• Spray ferrous sulphate @ 5.0 g along with lime salt @ 1.0 g per litre of water to control ‘Fe’ deficiency.
• To control ‘Zn’ deficiency, zinc sulphate @ 5.0 g + 0.5 ml sticking agent per litter of water.
Weeds • Hand hoeing and weeding are necessary at 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting in light soils. Immediately the plants have to be earthed up.
• In black soils where ridge and furrow method of planting and wider spacing are adopted country plough can be worked for earthing up and removal of weeds and followed by weeding in the lines.
Shoot borer Cultural control:
• Plant the ecological engineering plants to attractant, augment and conserve natural enemies.
• Destroy the infested shoots and destroy them to kill harbouring caterpillars
• Place light traps @ 1 /acre and operate between 6 and 10 pm to attract and trap the adult moths. Collect and kill the trapped moths.
• Mulching with green Lantana camara and Vitex negundo leaves @ 2 t/ acre at 40 and 90 days after planting.
Biological control:
• Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 40,000/acre.
• Conserve and augment entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) such as Rhabditis /Oscheius turmerici .
• Conserve natural enemies such as Angitia (Dioctes) tronchanterata; Xanthopimpla australis, Theromia inareolata, Bracon hebetor, B. brevicornis, B. nosatoi, B. lasus, Phanerotoma hendecasisella, Myosoma sp, Apanteles sp, Brachymeria euloeae, mermethid nematode, earwigs, robber flies and spiders, ladybird beetle, spiders, chrysopids, Trichogrammatids etc.
• Spray neem oil (0.5%) at fortnightly intervals.
Rhizome fly** Cultural control:
• Destroy stray plants in off season
• Select and plant healthy rhizomes.
• Remove and destroy rotting rhizomes along with the maggots from the field after the harvest of the crop.
• Ecological engineering in turmeric with paddy reduces pest attacks.
Biological control:
• Conserve and/or inundate the natural enemies such as ladybird beetle, spiders, chrysopids, Trichogrammatids etc.
Leaf roller/ Bihar hairy caterpillar** Cultural control:
• Collect and destroy the egg masses and larvae
• Remove alternate weed hosts near the field
Biological control:
• Conserve the natural enemies such as ladybird beetle, spiders, chrysopids, Bracon sp, fire ants, dragon fly, praying mantis, ground beetle and Trichogrammatids etc.
• Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 20,000/acre.
Leaf spot Cultural control:
• Pluck and remove the infested leaf and uproot the infested plants and destroy them.
• Use proper green mulching to reduce soil splashes.
Biological control:
• Use of plant extracts such as garlic extracts is effective against foliar pathogens.
• Spray of an extract of asafoetida, turmeric and water pathogens including nematodes.
Leaf blotch Cultural control:
• Use proper green mulching to reduce soil splashes.
Biological control:
• Use of plant extracts such as garlic extracts is effective against foliar pathogens.
Soft rot/ rhizome rot Cultural control:
• Maintain proper drainage by using 30 cm raised bed and avoiding the water stagnation
• Adopt phyto sanitary measures like infected plants should be uprooted and destroyed.
• Adopt crop rotation with non-host crops like ragi, paddy, maize, sorghum etc.
Taphrina leaf blotch Cultural control:
• Maintain proper drainage by using 30 cm raised bed and avoiding the water stagnation
• Adopt phyto sanitary measures like infected plants should be uprooted and destroyed.
• Adopt crop rotation with non-host crops like ragi, paddy, maize, sorghum etc.
• Mulching with green leaves (Lantana camara and Vitex negundo) @ 4- 4.8 t/acre is at the time of planting. (It is repeated @ 2 t/ acre 40 and 90 days after planting).
Biological control:
• Use Fermented Plant Extract (FPE) prepared by using (garlic + onion leaves + Canabis sp + wild poisonous plant) + (cow urine) + (EM solution) + (extract after washing polished rice) + (alcohol) + (water) (1:1:1:1:1:15), sufficient for 1.0 ha for seed treatment against soft rot.
• FPE to be applied after every fortnight by using watering can for next 2 month i.e. up to July end
Taphrina leaf blotch Cultural control:
• Field sanitation should be practiced.
• Follow crop rotation with cereal and legume crops to reduce the inoculum build up.
Colletotrichum leaf spot Cultural control:
• Field sanitation should be practiced.
• Follow crop rotation with cereal and legume crops to reduce the inoculum build up.
White grub** Cultural control:
• Uproot the infested plants, collect and destroy the infected plant along with larvae.
• Use well decomposed FYM
Lacewing bug** Cultural control:
• Destroy all volunteer plants and old neglected plantations.
• Use healthy and pest free rhizomes for planting. Apply hot water treatment prior to planting.
Nematodes** Cultural control:
• Uproot and destroy the infested plants.
• Treat infested rhizomes with hot water (50 OC) for 10 minutes, using nematode free seed rhizomes and solarizing turmeric beds for 40 days.
• Intercropping of marigold
• Deep ploughing or solarized beds of infested fields during summer.
• Follow crop rotation with cereal crops, marigold, Chrysanthemum, Sesbania, Crotalaria spp., gaillardia, castor bean and Desmodium spp., (parasitic nematodes)
• Border crops: Strips of rye grass, cover crops and mulch beds (rove beetle)
Biological control:
• An extract of asafoetida, turmeric and water is eff ective against several plant pathogens including nematodes.
• Application of neem (Azaradirachta indica) seed cake 100 Kg/acre before planting
• Pochonia chlamydosporia, a nematode bio control agent can be incorporated in turmeric beds (20 g/bed at 106 cfu/g) at the time of sowing.
Rodents Cultural control:
• Traps are used to catch and kill rodents.
• If possible cultivate turmeric in sloping and steep areas, as the crop will be protected from grazing animals and rodent pests.
Reproductive /maturity Nutrients • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest Weeds • Remove left over weeds to prevent weed seed spread in fi eld. Dry rot** Cultural control:
• Field sanitation should be practiced.
• Follow crop rotation with cereal and legume crops reduce the inoculum build up.
Leaf spot/ leaf blight/ rhizome rot • Same as in vegetative stage. Harvesting & storage
Cultural control:
• Store the harvested rhizomes free from pest/disease in pits dug under shade, the floor of which is lined with sand or saw dust.
• Cover the pits with coconut fronds.
• Destroy the soft rot/ bacteria rot infected rhizomes
Note:The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
*Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens as rhizome/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
**Pests of regional significance

Source:NIPHM, NCIPM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage