Tomato: Crop Stage-Wise Ipm

By Vikaspedia on 10 Dec 2016 | read
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Pre-sowing*

Nutrients• Add well rotten farm yard manure (FYM) @ 8-10 t/acre or vermicompost @ 5 t/ acre. Incorporate at the time of field preparation at 1 week (vermicompost) or 2 to 3 weeks (FYM) before transplanting.
Weeds• At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize the weeds menace in field.
• Keep the nursery weed free by hand pulling of the weeds.
Soil-borne fungus and nematodes, resting stages of insectsCultural control:
• Deep summer ploughing of fields to control nematodes and exposes dormant stages (pupa and larva) of Helicoverpa and Spodoptera and subsequently reduces their initial population build up
• Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil-borne pests including weeds.
• Ecological engineering of tomato with raising African marigold nursery 15 days prior to tomato nursery serves as a trap crop for ovipositing females of Helicoverpa.
• Apply neem cake @ 100 kg/acre.
Damping offCultural control:
• Excessive watering and poorly drained areas of field should be avoided
• Use raised beds: 15 cm height is better for water drainage or use pro-trays for raising seedlings
Biological control:
• Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 1 % WP @ 9 g/kg of seed.
Chemical control:
• Seed treatment with captan 75% WS @ 20-30 g/kg seed
• Soil drench with captan 75% WP @ 1000 g in 400 l of water/acre

Seed Sowing/ Transplanting stage*

Nutrients• Before sowing, soil testing should be done to find out the soil fertility status. Nutrients should be provided as per soil test recommendations. Generally, tomato needs 40: 24: 24 kg N: P: K/acre-for varieties and 60: 36: 36 kg N: P: K/acre-for hybrids.
• In varieties- Apply 50% of N fertilizer dose as basal before transplanting.
• Apply entire dose of phosphatic fertilizers at the time of last ploughing/transplanting in case of varieties.
• For hybrids, apply nitrogen fertilizer in three equal split doses. First at the time of last ploughing.
• For hybrids, apply potassic fertilizers in two equal splits, first at the time of last ploughing.
• Based on soil test for micronutrients, the deficient micronutrient should be applied in soil at sowing/transplanting.
• Biofertilizers: For seed/seedling treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 8-10 g each/kg seed
• For seedling root dip treatment with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) cultures @ 250 g each/acre seedlings

Seed and Seedling*

Weed management• Keep the nursery beds weed free by hand weeding.
• Avoid carrying of weed seedlings along with tomato seedlings
• Cultural practices such as crop rotation, line transplanting, intercropping should be adopted to avoid weeds spread and to suppress the weed growth.
Early blightCultural control:
• Use resistant or tolerant cultivars
• Change the nursery beds location every season,h eradicate weeds and volunteer tomato plants, fertilize properly
• Avoid planting overlapping crops in adjacent area.
Chemical control:
• Spray azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or captan 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g in 400 l of water/acre or copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or copper sulphate 2.62% SC @ 400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or iprodione 50% WP @ 600 g in 200 l of water/acre or kitazin 48% EC @ 80 ml in 80 l of water/acre or mancozeb 35% SC @ 200 g in 200 l water/acre or mancozeb 75% WG @ 400 g in 200 l of water/acre or pyraclostrobin 20% WG @ 150-200 g in 200 l of water/acre or zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or ziram 80% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or famoxadone 16.6% + cymoxanil 22.1% SC @ 200 g in 200 l of water/acre or metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 600-700 g in 200 l of water/acre
Bacterial wiltCultural control:
• Crop rotations, viz., cowpea-maize-cabbage, okra-cowpea-maize, maize- cowpea-maize and finger millet- brinjal are reported effective in reducing bacterial wilt of tomato
• Rotate with non-host crops, particularly with paddy
• Use seedlings from pathogen free seed beds.
• Restriction of irrigation water flowing from affected field to healthy field
Biological control:
• Neem cake @ 100 kg/acre.
Bacterial leaf spotChemical control:
• Spray streptomycin sulfate 9% + tetracycline hydrochloride 1% SP solution (streptocycline) 40-100 ppm in fields after the appearance of first true leaves. Two sprays, one before transplanting (seed beds) and another after transplanting (main field)
Fusarium wiltBiological control:
• Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 1% WP @ 9 g/kg seed
• Root zone application: Mix thoroughly 2.5 kg of the T. viride 1% WP in 150 kg of compost or farmyard manure and apply this mixture in the field after sowing/ transplanting of crops
Leaf curlCultural control:
• Raising nursery in protected condition (with net of sufficient mesh size to prevent the entry of vector, whitefly)
• Seeds from disease free healthy plants should be selected for sowing.
• In the nursery all the infected plants should be removed carefully and destroyed. Seedlings infected with the viral disease should not be used for transplanting.
Chemical control:
• Before transplanting dip the roots of seedlings for 15 minutes in imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 60-70 ml in 200 l of water/acre for management of leaf curl vector.
NematodesCultural control:
• Crop rotation with cereal crops
• Ecological engineering of tomato with marigold/mustard as intercrops reduces nematode population
• Nursery should be raised in nematode free sites or solarized beds.
Chemical control:
• Apply dazomet technical @ 12-16 g/acre (nursery)
Serpentine leaf minerCultural control:
• Avoid excess use of nitrogen.
• Ecological engineering of tomato with beans as intercrop reduces leaf miner attack.

Vegetative stage

Nutrient Management• In varieties, apply the second dose of N i.e. 13.5 kg N/acre, at 45 days after transplanting.
• For hybrids, apply the second dose of N i.e. 20 kg N/acre at 30 days after planting.
• For hybrids, apply the second dose of potassic fertilizers at 30 days after planting.
• Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.
Weed management• Field should be weed free before 30 days crop stage. Two hoeings between the rows plus hand weeding within the row at 15 and 30 days after planting.
• Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 30 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.
Alternaria blight and late blightCultural control:
• Field sanitation
• Destruction of alternate hosts
• Provide light irrigation
Chemical control:
• Spray mancozeb 35% SC @ 200 g in 200 l water/acre or mancozen 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300 l of water/acre or zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or famoxadone 16.6% + cymoxanil 22.1% SC @ 200 g in 200 l of water/acre or cymoxanil 8% + mancozeb 64% WP @ 600 g in 200-300 l of water/acre or azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or captan 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g in 400 l of water/acre or copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or copper sulphate 2.62% SC @ 400 ml in 200 l of water/acre or cyazaphamid 34.5% SC @ 80 ml in 200 l of water/acre or metrium 75% WG @ 1000 g in 200-300 l of water/acre
Leaf curl disease (vector –whitefly)Cultural control:
• Field sanitation, roguing of affected plants
• Raise barrier crops-cereals (maize or sorghum) around the field.
• Peppermint can be used as repellant plant for whitefly.
• Yellow sticky traps or cards @ 10/acre may reduce the whiteflies population
Biological control:
• Conserve parasitoids such as Encarsia sp. (nymphal and pupal), Eretmocerus spp (nymphal and pupal). etc.
• Conserve predators such as Dicyphus hesperus, (mirid bug), dragonfly, spider, robber fly, praying mantis, fire ants, coccinellids, lace wings, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp) etc.
• Spray neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5% or azadirachtin 5% W/W neem extract concentrate @ 80 g in 160 l of water/acre
Chemical control:
• Spray dimethoate 30% EC @ 396 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 60-70 ml in 200 l of water/acre or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or carbofuran 3% CG @ 16,000 g/acre or malathion 50% EC @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or oxydemeton-methyl 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phorate 10% CG @ 6,000 g/acre or spiromesifen 22.9% SC @ 250 ml in 200 l of water/acre
Septoria leaf spotCultural control:
• Removal and destruction of the affected plant parts.
Chemical control:
• Spray with mancozeb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300 l of water/acre
Spider mitesCultural control:
• Field sanitation, roguing of affected plants
• Plant tall border crops such as maize, sorghum etc.
Biological control:
• Conserve predators such as predatory mites (Phytoseiulus spp., Amblyseius spp.), staphylinids (Oligota spp.), lady bird beetles, lacewings, predatory thrips, anthocorid bugs (Orius spp.), mirid bugs, predatory flies (syrphid/hover flies) etc.
Chemical control:
• Apply fenzaquin 10% EC @ 500 ml in 200 l of water/acre or spiromesifen 22.9% SC @ 250 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Serpentine leaf minerCultural and Mechanical control:
• Use yellow sticky traps or cards @ 10/acre
Biological control:
• Conserve parasitoids such as Tetrastichus ovularum (egg), Gronotoma micromorpha (larval and pupal), Diglyphus sp (larval), Opius phaseoli (pupal), Chrysocharis sp, Neochrysocharis formosa etc.
• Conserve predators such as lacewings, lady beetles, spiders, fire ants etc.
Tobacco caterpillarCultural control:
• Field sanitation.
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre or monitoring adult moths activity. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks
• Setting up of light trap @ 1/acre
• Ecological engineering of tomato with growing of ovipositional trap crops such as castor.
• Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as king crow, mynah etc.
Biological control:
• Release egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum @ 20,000/acre/week four times.
• Spray NSKE 5% against eggs and first instar larva or azadirachtin 5% W/W neem extract concentrate @ 80 g in 160 l of water/acre
• Conserve parasitoids such as Trichogramma chilonis (egg), Tetrastichus spp. (egg), Telenomus spp. (egg), Chelonus blackburni (egg-larval), Carcelia spp. (larval-pupal), Campoletis chlorideae (larval), Eriborus argentiopilosus (larval), Microplitis sp etc.
• Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla carnea, coccinellids, King crow, common mynah, wasp, dragonfly, spider, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, fire ants, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp), pentatomid bug (Eocanthecona furcellata), earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles etc.
• Apply entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) @ 2,50,000 infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae/sq mt area
Chemical Control:
• Apply trichlorfon 5% GR @ 300 g/acre or trichlorfon 5% DUST @ 300 g/acre or spray indoxacarb 14.5% SC @ 160 - 200 ml in 120-240 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 20% WG @ 40 g in 150–200 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC @ 40 ml in 150-200 l of water/acre or carbaryl 50% WP @ 800 g in 200-400 l of water/acre or chlorantranilioprole 18.5% SC @ 60 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS @ 120 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-200 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or novaluron 10 % EC @ 300 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 514 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 20% AF @ 600-700 ml in 300-400 l of water/acre or quinalohos 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or novaluron 5.25% + indoxacarb 4.5% SC @ 330-350 ml in 200 l of water/acre

Reproductive stage

Nutrients• In varieties, the third dose of N i.e. 13.5 kg N/acre, to be applied at 60 days after transplanting.
• For hybrids, third dose of N i.e. 20 kg N/acre is applied at 60 days after planting.
• Micronutrient deficiency, if any, should be corrected by application of particular nutrients
Weeds• Weeds should be removed from the field to avoid further spread of weed seeds..
Gram pod borerCultural control:
• Field sanitation
• Ecological engineering of tomato with growing intercrops such as cowpea, onion, maize, coriander, urdbean etc. and with growing sorghum or maize in 4 rows all around tomato crop as guard crop.
• Rotate the tomato crop with a non host cereal crop, cucurbit, or cruciferous vegetable.
• Ecological engineering of tomato with repellant plants: Ocimum/Basil and marigold as ovipositional trap crop.
• Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as king crow, mynah etc.
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity. Replace the lures after every 2-3 weeks
• Setting up of light trap @ 1/acre
Biological control:
• Inundatively release T. pretiosum @ 40,000/acre 4-5 times from flower initiation stage at weekly intervals
• Conserve parasitoids such as Tetrastichus spp. (egg), Telenomus spp. (egg), Campoletis chlorideae (larval) etc.
• Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla carnea, coccinellids, King crow, common mynah, wasp, dragonfly, spider, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, fire ants, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp), pentatomid bug (Eocanthecona furcellata), earwigs, ground beetles, rove beetles etc.
• Spray azadirachtin 1% (10000 ppm) neem based EC @ 400-600 ml in 200 l of water/acre or azadirachtin 5% W/W neem extract concentrate @ 80 g in 160 l of water/acre
• Spray Ha NPV 0.43% AS @ 600 ml in 160-240 l of water/acre or Ha NPV 2% AS @ 100-200 ml in 200 l of water/acre in combination with jaggery @ 1 kg in the evening hours at 10-15 days interval on observing the eggs or early instar larvae Spray Bacillus thuringiensis var gallariae @ 400-600 g in 200 l of water/acre
• Apply entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) @ 20-120 crore infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae/acre.
Chemical control: 
• Spray with indoxacarb 14.5% SC @ 160-200 ml in 120-240 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 20% WG @ 40 g in 150-200 l of water/acre or flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC @ 40 ml in 150-200 l of water/acre or novaluron 10 % EC @ 300 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or carbaryl 50% WP @ 800 g in 200-400 l of water/acre or chlorantranilioprole 18.5% SC @ 60 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS @ 120 ml in 200 l of water/acre or lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC @ 120 ml in 160-200 l of water/acre or methomyl 40% SP @ 300-450 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phosalone 35% EC @ 514 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or quinalphos 20% AF @ 600-700 ml in 300-400 l of water/acre or quinalohos 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre 
Tobacco caterpillar• Same as in vegetative stage
Bacterial leaf spot• Same as in seed and seedling stage
Leaf curl diseaseCultural practices:
• Staking of plants to avoid touching fruits on ground.
• Same as in seed and seedling and vegetative stages..
MosaicCultural practices:
• Seeds from disease free healthy plants should be selected for sowing.
• The seeds should be thoroughly rinsed and dried in shade.
• In the nursery all the infected plants should be removed carefully and destroyed. Seedlings infected with the viral disease should not be used for transplanting.
• Crop rotation with crops other than tobacco, potato, chilli, capsicum, brinjal, and other solanaceous crops should be undertaken

* Applying Trichoderma as seed and nursery treatment and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Source: NIPHM, NCIPM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

 

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