1.Biopriming for vegetable crop seeds
| Crops|| Pseudomonas fluorescens|
| Concentration (%)|| Soaking duration (h)|
|Control seedling||Bioprimed Seedling|
- Early emergence
- Uniform germination
- Vigourous seedling
2.Designer seed for cotton
Designer seed is an integrated seed treatment that involves addition of nutrients, plant protectants and bio inoculants for improved emergence and establishment
Seed treatment / Kg of Seeds
Delinted seed + polykote 3g/5ml of water + Imidachlorprid 5g + Pseudomonas 10 g + Azophos 20g
- Improved giourous seedlings
- Low plant protection cost
- Increased yield
3.Seed Treatment for Rainfed Millet Cultivation (Seed Hardening)
|Crop||Chemical and Concentration||Soaking duration (h)|
|Maize, Varagu, Tenai and Samai||2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate||8|
|Pearl Millet||2% potassium chloride||16|
|Sorghum||2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate||6|
|Ragi||0.5% calcium chloride||6|
- Higher germination
- Vigourous seedlings
- Uniform seedling growth
- Better seed set
- Benefit cost ratio:1.5:1
4.SEED TREATMENT FOR FORAGE CROPS
|Deenanath grass||Soaking of mechanically defuzzed seeds in 0.25% potassium nitrate+200 ppmgibberellic acid (1:1) for 16 hrs|
|Stylosanthus||Scarification with conc.sulphuric acid@200ml/kg of seed for 4 minutes|
|Hedge Lucerne||Scarification with conc.sulphuric acid@ 200 ml/kg of seed for 4-5 minutes|
|Cenchrus sp||Soaking of acid scarified seeds in 50 ppm copper sulphate solution for 6 hrs|
|Fodder sorghum||Soaking of seeds in 0.5 percentage potassium nitrate solution for 2 hrs|
5.SEED HARDENING FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCEWhat is? Seed hardening is physiological preconditioning of the seed by hydration to with stand drought under rainfed condition.
- Soak the seed in water or in chemical solution for definite duration in proper seed to solution ratio
- Shade drying to bring back the seed to original moisture content
Hardening technique for various crop
|Crop||Chemical and concentration||Methodology|
|Pearl millet||2% potassium chloride||Dissolve 20 gm of salt in 1000 ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 650 ml of this solution for 10 hours and dry back to original moisture.|
|Sorghum||2% potassium chloride||Dissolve 20 gm of salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 650 ml of the solution for 16 hours and dry back to original moisture or weight.|
|Cotton||2% Potassium chloride||Dissolve 20 gm of salt in 1000 ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 650 ml of this solution for 10 hours and dry back to original moisture.|
|Sunflower||Potassium chloride||Dissolve 20 gm of salt in 1000 ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 650 ml of this solution for 12 hours and dry back to original moisture.|
Black gram & Green gram
|100ppm Zinc sulphate|
100ppm Manganese sulphate
|Dissolve 1000mg of salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 350 ml of the solution for 3 hours and dry back to original moisture or weight.|
|Ragi||0.2% Sodium chloride||Dissolve 2 g of salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 700 ml of solution for 6 hrs and dry back to original moisture content or weight.|
|Groundnut||0.5% calcium chloride||Dissolve 5 g of salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 300 ml of solution for 4 hours and dry back to original moisture or weight.|
|Redgram||100ppm Zinc sulphate||Dissolve 1000mg salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 300 ml of solution for 4 hrs and dry back to original moisture or weight.|
|Bengal gram||1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate||Dissolve 10g salt in 1000ml of water. Soak 1 kg of seed in 350 ml of solution for 4 hrs and dry back to original moisture or weight|
- It increases the speed of germination and germination percentage
- It increases the seeding vigour.
- The uniformity of seedling emergence.
- Increases the root growth.
- Flowering occurs 2-3 days earlier.
- Uniform seed set and maturity.
- Increases the yield.
6.Pelleting in Gingelly
Preparation of adhesiv
Dissolve 20 g CMC powder in 500 ml of water. Add this solution to 500 ml of boiled water. Now 2% CMC solution is ready
Take 1 kg neem leaf powder and divide into 3 parts. Divide 1 litre of CMC adhesive into 3 parts.
Put 1 kg of seed into the pelletizer and 1/3 part of adhesive and 1/3 part of neem leaf poder and mix will. Repeat the process for two more times
- Size of the seed is increased.
- Sowing is easy
- No nee for thinning
7.Integrated seed management Technique for Enhanced Field Emergence
|Paddy||:||Seed soaking in 1% KCl for 16 hrs and drying back to original moisture content + polymer @ 3 ml/kg + imidacloprid @ 2 ml/kg + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g /kg+ Azophos @ 120 g/kg.|
|Blackgram||:||Seed soaking in ZnSO4 100 ppm for 3 hrs and drying back to original moisture content + polymer @ 3 ml / kg + imidaclorprid @ 2ml / kg + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 4 g / kg + Rhizobium @ 20 g / kg.|
|Sunflower||:||Seed soaking in 1% KCl for 6 h and drying back to original moisture content + polymer @ 3 ml / kg + imidacloprid @ 2 ml / kg + Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg + Azospirillum @ 40+ g / kg.|
|Cotton||:||Seed soaking in 1 % KCl for 6 hrs and drying back to original moisture content + polymer @ 3 ml / kg + imidacloprid @ 2 ml / kg + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg +Azophos @ 120 g / kg|
Formation of designer seed in crops
- Enhanced germination and field emergence
- Improved seedlings vigour
- Sustained protection against pests and diseases during early growth period
- Reduced plant protection cost
- Increased yield
8.LIVE SEED SEPARATION IN GROUNDNUT
Groundnut seed are classified as micro biotic due to their fast deteriorating nature due to its oil content. It also has production problems that lead to the yield of poor quality seeds. But in groundnut for getting required yield plant population has to be maintained (33plants / sq.m.) This warrants the need of sowing good quality seed selection technique is the live seed separation. Hence live seed separation technique is the separation of germinable seed from dead seed.
- Separate the pest attacked, brokened and immmatured seeds
- Soak the seeds in equal volume of 0.5% CaCl2 salt solution for 6 hrs.
- For preparation of 0.5% CaCl2 solution we have to dissolve 125 gm of CaCl2 in 25 lit of water.
- Keep the seeds in between gunny bags in thin layer for about 16 hrs.
- After 16hrs the live seeds radicle might have germinate up to 5mm.
- Separate those germinated seeds from that seed lot and dry it in shade.
- For every 2hrs internal the germinated seeds can be separated from that lot for about 3-5 times.
- That seeds can be dried in the shade.
- The remaining ungerminated seeds are considered as dead ones.
- Further these germinated seeds are treated with either Carbendazim (Fungicide) or Rhizobium.
- Sprouted seeds can be used for sowing.
- Do no spread as thick layer
- Avoid fungal spread in the gunny bag
- Do not allow to over sprout
- Shade dry the seed of each interval of collection separately
- Dead seeds are used for domestic purpose especially for oil extraction.
- Seed rate will be reduced.
- Calcium deficiency can be overcome by soaking the seeds in CaCl2 solution.
- About 10-15% of the yield can be increased.
Separation of live seeds from dead seeds
|9.POLYMER COATING |
It is the process of coating the seeds with polymers of different colours along with nutrients and plant protectants to increase the aesthetic values of the seed with required benefits.
- Coat the seeds with polykote (3 g + 5ml water / kg) after proper dilution
- Mix fungicide (Carbendazim 2g) and pesticide (Imidachloprid 2 ml / Kg) with the polykote to increase the resistance to the pest and diseases.
- Shade the seed before using / storing
|Colour of polymer||Dose of polymer (g/kg)||Volume of water (ml)|
- Polykote gives uniform colour and shape to the seeds and also increases5 to 10 percent of germination % and vigour index.
- Improved seedling emergence and vigour.
- Protection against pest and disease during storage.
- Free from environment pollution
- Avoid wastage of seed treating chemicals.
- Polykote can be used for all agricultural and horticultural crops.
Polymer coated maize seed
Polymer coated seeds
Rhizobial coating is to enriching the rhizosphere microenvironment with organic nutrients for early establishment.
- Take the seeds in a plastic tray
- Add proper quantity of adhesive (cool maida 10% gruel) to the seeds or jaggery
- Shake gently so that the adhesive spreads evenly on all the seeds
- Sprinkle the required biofertilizer (Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobactor) evenly over the seeds and continue shaking.
- The wet seed surface will attract the biofertilizer and result in even coating over the seeds
- Roll the seed for uniformity
- Shade dry the seed
Seed rhizobial coating with 10% maida gruel @ 200-300ml/ kg of seeds and coating with biofertilizer @ 200-300 g per kg of seed improve the field emergence of green gram, black gram, cotton, tomato and brinjal.
- Seeds should not spill while shaking
- Adhesive should not be added excess. Since it will lead to formation of seed dumps.
- Inadequate application of adhesive will result in uneven seed coating
- Separate the seeds dumps formed, if any manually.
- Empty the seeds on a sheet of paper and allow it to dry for a day.
- It improves fertility at rhizosphere region with organic matter.
- The mechanical planting of seeds is facilitated.
- Seed are uniform in size and shape
- Easy handling of seed
- In mechanical separation seed flow easily which prevent dumping together
- Small and irregular shaped seeds can be handled easily by pelleting which changes the shape of the seeds.
- Permits precision planting in very small seeds which results in uniform seedling emergence
- Improved ballistics properties. Pelleting increases the weight of seed therefore increase the capacity of aerially sown seed to penetrate in to standing vegetation in tree species.
- Handling of small seeds is made easy which in turn reduces the seed rate.
11.BOTANICAL SEED PELLETING IN GREENGRAM
Pelleting is enclosing of seed in a filler material using an adhesive with bioactive chemicals to ensure singling of seed and size increases for easy handling.
- Take the seeds in plastic tray
- Add a small quantity of adhesive (10% maida solution) to the seeds
- Shake gently, in such a way the adhesive spreads evenly on parts of each seed
- Add filler material (Arappu leaf powder) evenly over the seeds and continue shaking until the uniform coating is ensured
- Separate the seed dumps if any
- Remove the excess filler material by sieving
- Dry under shade to expel moisture
- Small and irregular shape seeds can be handled easily
- Precision sowing of seeds is possible as size and weight of seeds are increased
- Increased physiological seed quality characters
What is? Seed priming is the process of controlled hydration of seeds to a level that permits pre-germinative metabolic activity to proceed, but prevents actual emergence of the radicle. Types of priming
- Hydro priming (use of water double the volume of seed)
- Halo priming (use of salt solution-NaCl)
- Osmo priming (use of osmotic solution – PEG)
- Sand matric priming – (use of moist sand)
For the first three methods soak the seed in the respective solution of definite concentration for needed duration and dry back the seed to original moisture content.
For the fourth method mix the seeds with moist sand of required water holding capacity, place it in perforated plastic covers and keep it deep in the tray filled with moist sand of same water holding capacity.
|Crop||Seed priming techniques|
|Tomato||Hydro priming (48hrs)|
|Brinjal||Sand matric 80% (3 days)|
|Chillies||Sand matric 80% (3 days)|
|Onion||Sand matric 80% (3 days)|
|Carrot||Hydro priming (36hrs)|
|Beetroot||Hydro priming (12hrs)|
|Bhendi||Sand matric60% (3hrs)|
|Radish||Hydro priming (12hrs)|
|Mustard||Hydro priming (12hrs)|
Comparison of control and primed bhendi seed
Creation of different WHC (Water Holding Capacity)
30% WHC – 90ml of water / kg of dry sand
40% WHC – 120 ml of water / kg of dry seed
60% WHC – 180 ml of water / kg of dry seed
80% WHC – 240 ml of water / kg of dry seed
100% WHC – 300 ml of water / kg of dry seed
- Enhances the germination percentage
- Enhances the speed and uniformity of germination
- Improves the resistance towards water and temperature stress
- Increases the shelf life of seed
- Highly suitable for small seeds
- Enhances the yield