Common cultural practices:
· Deep ploughing of fields during summer to control nematodes population, to expose pupae;propagules of soil borne pathogens and to reduce the weeds infestation..
· Soil solarization
· Timely sowing should be done.
· Field sanitation, rogueing.
· Destroy the alternate host plants
· Growing pea or marigold as a trap crop for the management of Leaf miner.
· Plant tall border crops like mustard for the management of aphids.
· Crop rotation with non leguminous crops especially cereals.
· Adopt ecological engineering by growing the recommended attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.ommon cultural practices:
Nutrients· Fertilizers should be applied on the basis of soil test values and recommendations for particular agro-ecological regions.
· Apply 4-5 tons of farmyard manure or vermicompost @1.5-2 t/acre at the time of last cultivation and incorporate in the soil 2 to 3 weeks before sowing.
· Incubate Trichoderma @ 500g in 100 Kg FYM for 15 days prior to its application in one acre field
Weeds· At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique i.e. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage to minimize the weeds menace in field.
Root rot, Stem rot, Nematode, Pod borer· Application of FYM/Neem or Mahua cake @ 200 Kg/acre.
· Seed treatment with Trichoderma @ 5 g/Kg seed
Nutrients· Seed treatment should be done with Rhizobium cultures @5-10 g/Kg seed.
· French bean needs liberal N fertilization (40-45 Kg/acre) because of poor nodulation. The crop requires 25 Kg P2O5/acre. If K status in soil is marginal also apply 10-15 Kg K2O/acre
· In sulphur and zinc deficient areas, apply sulphur and zinc sulphate each @ 10 Kg/ acre in soil at the time of sowing.
Weeds· Always use certified and weed free seeds.
· Line sowing should be done to facilitate inter-culture operations.
· Plant population should be maintained to its optimum right from its beginning to minimize the crop- weed competition.
· Intercropping with crops like maize in kharif and mustard in rabi
Root rots, ematodes, Stem fly, Anthracnose, BCMVCultural control:
· Select healthy and disease free seeds.
· The seeds should be thoroughly rinsed and dried in shade.
· Mulching with straw/pine needles/eucalyptus leaves.
· Avoid dense sowing.
· Sowing in well drained soil.
· Follow optimum sowing depth of 5-7 cm.
· Intercropping with mustard where nematodes are the problem.
*Application of Trichoderma harzianum/ viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens for treatment of seed/seedling/planting materials in the nurseries and field application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
Common cultural practices:
· Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop · Avoid water stress and water stagnation conditions.
· Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
· Collection and destruction of eggs, and larvae
· Collect and destroy diseased infected and insect infested plant parts
· Use yellow sticky traps for aphids and leaf miner @ 4-5 traps/acre.
· Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
· Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
· Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
· Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
· Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
· Augmentative release of natural enemies.
Nutrients· Correct micronutrient deficiency if any in standing crop.
Weeds· Rajmash suffers severe competition from weeds in initial stages. First 30-40 days after sowing is the critical period for crop- weed competition. Hand tool weeding at 20 & 40 days after sowing should be done for the management of weeds.
· Reflective mulches such as silver colored plastic can deter aphids from feeding on plants.
· Sturdy plants can be sprayed with a strong jet of water to knock aphids from leaves
· See common biological practices.
· Insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem or canola oil are usually the best method of control; always check the labels of the products for specific usage guidelines prior to use.
Leaf miner· See common cultural and biological practices.
· Control the vector by adopting common practices for the aphid.
· All the infected plants should be removed carefully from the field and destroyed.
Angular leaf spot**, Anthracnose and rust**Cultural control:
· Balance use of manures and fertilizers.
· Mulching with pine needles or eucalyptus leaves reduces the angular leaf spot.
Nutrients· Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.
Weeds· Remove left over weeds before shedding of seeds to prevent weed seed spread in the subsequent year.
Pod borer· See common cultural practices.
· Inundative release T. pretiosum @ 40,000/acre 4-5 times from flower initiation stage at weekly intervals.
· Apply entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema feltiae @ 8 billion infective juveniles/acre.
Stem boring weevil**, Flower beetle**· See common cultural practices.
· Collect the beetle and kill them.
Aphid, leaf miner· Same as vegetative stage.
Angular leaf spot**, Anthracnose and rust**· Same as vegetative stage.
Seed borne fungi, Rust**, White rot, Anthracnose· Collect crop residue from the field after crop harvest and burn them.
· Clean the seeds properly, remove broken or shriveled grains.
· Dry the seeds properly and store in air tight seed bins.
· Practice clean cultivation/maintain weed free fields which reduces the harboring/hiding points for rodents.
· Practice trapping with locally available traps using lure @ 20-25 traps/ac. In areas, where bandicoot is a problem, wonder traps/multi-catch traps work better and enable to trap more animals int a single trap.
· Identify live rodent burrows and smoke the burrows with burrow smoker for 2-3 minutes
· Erect owl perches @ 12-15/ac to promote natural control of rodents
· In cases of high level of infestation (>50 live burrows/ac) practice poison baiting with zinc phosphide @ 2.0% on community approach.
PRACTICE PRE-BAITING TO AVOID BAIT SHYNESS
Day 1: Close all the burrows in the fields, field bunds, canal bunds and surrounding barren lands etc.
Day 2: Count the re-opened burrows and practice pre-baiting @ 20 g/burrow (98 parts of broken rice + 2 parts of edible oil)
Day 4: Observe the re-opened burrows and treat the burrow with zinc phosphide poison bait (96 parts of broken rice + 2 parts of edible oil + 2 parts of zinc phosphide) @ 10g/ burrow. Collect the dead rats, if found any outside and bury them.
Source: NIPHM, NCIPM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage