One of the most important soft fruits
A low volume high value fruit crop
Grown under protected & open condition
Gives quickest return in shortest time than any other fruit.
Day neutral crop. increased the area under cultivation
Mechanical harvester reduced the cost of production IMPORTANCE
Fair source of vit-A,B1,B2,niacin and vit-C
Rich in minerals – Ca,P and K
one of the best natural sources of antioxidant
Pleasant flavor – volatile esters
Consumed as fresh fruit &
ice cream, soft drinks, confectionery and chewing gum
Total area- 2,17,766 thousand hectares&production 29,86,813 MT.
Europe and North America(50 and 30%) are the major producer.
In India, confined only to hilly tracts of H.P,Uttaranchal, parts of U.P. and Kashmir valley.
With the introduction of day neutral cultivars, its cultivation has spread to tropical and subtropicalzones also and now Maharastra is leading state.
Meghalaya, Sikkim & Mizoram started its cultivation
Soil & CLIMATE
Shallow, Well drained, Loamy soil rich in humus
Acidic pH (5.0 –6.5)Friable up to 30-40cm depth
Fumigation against Verticillium wilt
Grown in temperate &subtropical countries
Max. growth rate- 22-25 C day and 70 -130C night temperature
Frost damage & winter injury – constraints
Photo period is effective for vegetative growth,plant morphology and yield.
Propagated through runners.
Planted at 1.2 x 1.2m or 1.8x1.8 m distance for propagation only(not field plantation ).
All the cultural practices followed.
At the second node of stolena runner plants is formed.
After sufficient growth and roots, separated from the mother plant and planted elsewhere.
Production can be enhanced by GA3 (50-100 ppm) spray in the month of June.
Lifted during Sept- October.
FIELD PLANTING ( FOR PRODUCTION)
Matted rows: plant runners at 90x45cm,width of mat is 40-45cm
Spaced beds: plant runners at 90x30 to 90x50cm
Hill rows: plant runners on raised beds of 15-20cm height at 30-45cm: single /double rows
35,000 to 50,000 plants / ha- planting densityJuly to December : time of planting
Set the plant at the correct depth and pack the soil firmly around the roots.
If the crown is set too shallow it will dry out, and if set too deep it maybe smothered.
System of planting
For annual cropping ,70-80 t FYM/ha fulfill then utritional requirement
Pre-planting application of 20 tonnes of FYM/ha
20-40-40 NPK kg/ha:basal dressing
40kg P & 80kg K /ha :annual application
Foliar application of urea (2%), zinc sulphate(0.5%), calcium sulphate (0.5%) and boric acid(0.2%) is beneficial for higher and better yields.
Go for frequent rather than few heavy ones
Do not wet leaves as it aggravates foliage scald
Trickle&sprinkler :reduces water requirement
Irrigate through furrows between rows
Manual weeding/ Chemical- paraquat, simazine@3kg/ha & Pendimethalin @ 330g/ha
To minimize freezing injury,suppress weed growth,reduce soil erosion, early cropping,increased yield
Mulch before exposure to low temp of 6-7ºC
Organic mulch-Clean straw, saw dust, pine needle/Bamboo matting.
Inorganic mulch- black plastic, transparent coloured polythene
Loose & light material so that it does not mat down and smother plants.
Disadvantage –it does not decompose in soil, so to be removed from the field at end of fruiting season.
Special cultural practices
Bud and Shoot thinning / Deshooting / Debudding
Removal of 1 - 2 buds/plant improves fruit yield and quality. Deblossoming
Removal of the flower truss to prevent fruiting &increased the yields of early saleable runners.Control of runners
Runners should be allowed to root along the rows until sufficient crowns are formed.
Excess runners are not required and should be removed from the rows.
Maturity index-when half to three quarter of the skin develops color
For distant market-when berries are green/white and still hard
Picking on alternate days
Pick the berries by nipping off stalk ¬holding the fruit
Pick berries with the caps (or calyx) or stem one to two inches from the calyx.
Average yield- 8-12t/ha
Packed in plastic punnets.
Placed in the corrugated fiber trays or ventilated cardboard boxes.
Refrigerate at all times at50 C or bellow.
For more than one days,reduce the temperature to 00 C.
Ideally it is preferred to pre cool and followed by lower cooling for longer shelf life.
Pests Symptoms Control
White grubs and cut worms Cut the root and stemof young plants Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos @2ml/L waterHairycaterpillarDefoliate leavesduring June-JulySpraying of endosulphon 0.05% ormalathion 0.05 %, Harvest berries 7-10days after malathion spray.Root weevil Feed on the rootlets,make deep tunnels incrown, finally theplants collapse.Apply Carbofuran (6-10 kg/ha) andParathion (0.017 %) around the plantsRed spidermiteSucking sap causingrusty brown of leaves.Plants stunted,reduced yieldsAldicarb (10G) @ 5 kg/ha orChlorpyriphos and Carbamates areeffective
DiseasesVerticilliumwiltOlder leaves turnbrown, shrivelled andplants dieproper crop rotation and soil fumigationwith formalin (5000 L/ha) or chloropicrin(210 L/ha).Red stele Fungus enters in to theroot and plant showsdull, bluish green whichsoon wilt and die.Proper drainage,crop rotation areimportant to reduce the incidence. Soildrenching with Ridomil and treatingrunners with copperoxychloride(0.1%)for15 minutes.Leaf spotcomplexSpot of various shapeappears on the leavesduring rainy season,that dry and defoliateGive 2-3 sprays of Belyton (2 ml/L ) or 5sprays of carbendazim (0.5g/L) at 21 daysintervals.Grey mould Blossom blight and fruitrotDo not allow fruit to touch the soil. Applyblack polythene/straw mulch beforefloweringViraldiseasesStunting of plants,marginal yellowing andupwards curling ofleavesUse of virus free runners, isolation ofinfected plants and control of aphidvectorswith systematic insecticides
Variability in Strawberry fruits