Package Of Practices For Strawberry Cultivation

By Department of Agriculture Meghalaya on 16 Jun 2016 | read
   1020

INTRODUCTION

One of the most important soft fruits

A low volume high value fruit crop

Grown under protected & open condition

Gives quickest return in shortest time than any other fruit.

Day neutral crop. increased the area under cultivation

Mechanical harvester reduced the cost of production IMPORTANCE

Fair source of vit-A,B1,B2,niacin and vit-C

Rich in minerals – Ca,P and K

one of the best natural sources of antioxidant

Pleasant flavor – volatile esters

Consumed as fresh fruit &

Processed products  

ice cream, soft drinks, confectionery and chewing gum

Distribution

Total area- 2,17,766 thousand hectares&production 29,86,813 MT.

 Europe and North America(50 and 30%) are the major producer.

 In India, confined only to hilly tracts of H.P,Uttaranchal, parts of U.P. and Kashmir valley.

With the introduction of day neutral cultivars, its cultivation has spread to tropical and subtropicalzones also and now Maharastra is leading state.

Meghalaya, Sikkim & Mizoram started its cultivation

Soil & CLIMATE

Shallow, Well drained, Loamy soil rich in humus

Acidic pH (5.0 –6.5)Friable up to 30-40cm depth

Fumigation against Verticillium wilt

Grown in temperate &subtropical countries

Max. growth rate- 22-25 C day and 70 -130C night temperature

Frost damage & winter injury – constraints

Photo period is effective for vegetative growth,plant morphology and yield.

CULTIVARS

Ofra

Camarosa

Chandler

Fair Fox

Black More

Sweet Charlie

Elista

Seascape

Propagation

Image title


Propagated through runners.

Planted at 1.2 x 1.2m or 1.8x1.8 m distance for propagation only(not field plantation ).

All the cultural practices followed.

At the second node of stolena runner plants is formed.

After sufficient growth and roots, separated from the mother plant and planted elsewhere.

Production can be enhanced by GA3 (50-100 ppm) spray in the month of June.

Lifted during Sept- October.

FIELD PLANTING ( FOR PRODUCTION)

Matted rows: plant runners at 90x45cm,width of mat is 40-45cm

Spaced beds: plant runners at 90x30 to 90x50cm

Hill rows: plant runners on raised beds of 15-20cm height at 30-45cm: single /double rows

35,000 to 50,000 plants / ha- planting densityJuly to December : time of planting

Set the plant at the correct depth and pack the soil firmly around the roots.

If the crown is set too shallow it will dry out, and if set too deep it maybe smothered.

System of planting

Protected cultivation

Image title


MANURING

For annual cropping ,70-80 t FYM/ha fulfill then utritional requirement

Pre-planting application of 20 tonnes of FYM/ha

20-40-40 NPK kg/ha:basal dressing

40kg P & 80kg K /ha :annual application

Foliar application of urea (2%), zinc sulphate(0.5%), calcium sulphate (0.5%) and boric acid(0.2%) is beneficial for higher and better yields.

IRRIGATION

Go for frequent rather than few heavy ones

Do not wet leaves as it aggravates foliage scald

Trickle&sprinkler :reduces water requirement

Irrigate through furrows between rows

Weed management

Manual weeding/ Chemical- paraquat, simazine@3kg/ha & Pendimethalin @ 330g/ha

MULCHING

To minimize freezing injury,suppress weed growth,reduce soil erosion, early cropping,increased yield

Mulch before exposure to low temp of 6-7ºC

Organic mulch-Clean straw, saw dust, pine needle/Bamboo matting.

Inorganic mulch- black plastic, transparent coloured polythene

Loose & light material so that it does not mat down and smother plants.

Disadvantage –it does not decompose in soil, so to be removed from the field at end of fruiting season.

Special cultural practices

Bud and Shoot thinning / Deshooting / Debudding

Removal of 1 - 2 buds/plant improves fruit yield and quality. Deblossoming

Removal of the flower truss to prevent fruiting &increased the yields of early saleable runners.Control of runners

Runners should be allowed to root along the rows until sufficient crowns are formed.

Excess runners are not required and should be removed from the rows.

HARVESTING

Maturity index-when half to three quarter of the skin develops color

For distant market-when berries are green/white and still hard

Picking on alternate days

Pick the berries by nipping off stalk ¬holding the fruit

Pick berries with the caps (or calyx) or stem one to two inches from the calyx.

Average yield- 8-12t/ha

Packaging

Image title


Packed in plastic punnets.

Placed in the corrugated fiber trays or ventilated cardboard boxes.

Refrigerate at all times at50 C or bellow.

For more than one days,reduce the temperature to 00 C.

Ideally it is preferred to pre cool and followed by lower cooling for longer shelf life.

Pests Symptoms Control

White grubs and cut worms Cut the root and stemof young plants Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos @2ml/L waterHairycaterpillarDefoliate leavesduring June-JulySpraying of endosulphon 0.05% ormalathion 0.05 %, Harvest berries 7-10days after malathion spray.Root weevil Feed on the rootlets,make deep tunnels incrown, finally theplants collapse.Apply Carbofuran (6-10 kg/ha) andParathion (0.017 %) around the plantsRed spidermiteSucking sap causingrusty brown of leaves.Plants stunted,reduced yieldsAldicarb (10G) @ 5 kg/ha orChlorpyriphos and Carbamates areeffective

DiseasesVerticilliumwiltOlder leaves turnbrown, shrivelled andplants dieproper crop rotation and soil fumigationwith formalin (5000 L/ha) or chloropicrin(210 L/ha).Red stele Fungus enters in to theroot and plant showsdull, bluish green whichsoon wilt and die.Proper drainage,crop rotation areimportant to reduce the incidence. Soildrenching with Ridomil and treatingrunners with copperoxychloride(0.1%)for15 minutes.Leaf spotcomplexSpot of various shapeappears on the leavesduring rainy season,that dry and defoliateGive 2-3 sprays of Belyton (2 ml/L ) or 5sprays of carbendazim (0.5g/L) at 21 daysintervals.Grey mould Blossom blight and fruitrotDo not allow fruit to touch the soil. Applyblack polythene/straw mulch beforefloweringViraldiseasesStunting of plants,marginal yellowing andupwards curling ofleavesUse of virus free runners, isolation ofinfected plants and control of aphidvectorswith systematic insecticides

Image title


Variability in Strawberry fruits

 

Comments