Organic Methods Of Pest And Disease Management

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 05 May 2016 | read
    015

Vegetable pests: Type-1 (Leaf eating caterpillars and borers)

Shoot borer, Fruit borer, Stem borer, Hairy caterpillar (on drum stick) and army worm of vegetable crops.

Control measures

1. Andrographis paniculata (siriyanangai) decoction 3 to 5 % or Sida spinosa (Arivalmani Poondu) decoction 5 %

Image title

For preparation of these decoctions, one of the above mentioned plants is taken and cut into small pieces excluding roots. One kg of this is mixed with four liters of water and placed in a mud pot. This is boiled and reduced to one litre. On cooling, 500 ml of this extract is mixed with 100 ml of soap solution and 9.4 liters of water and sprayed on the top.

2. Neem Kernel extracts 500 to 2000 ml per tank (10 litres capacity)

Image title3-5 kgs of neem kernel is required for an acre. Remove the outer seed coat and use only the kernel. If the seeds are fresh, 3 kgs of kernel is sufficient. If the seeds are old 5 kgs are required. Pound the kernel gently and tie it loosely with a cotton cloth. Soak this overnight in a vessel containing 10 litres of water. After this, it is filtered. On filtering, 6-7 litres of extract can be obtained. 500-1000 ml of this extract should be diluted with 9 ½ or 9 litres of water. Before spraying khadi soap solution @ 10 ml/litre should be added to help the extract stick well to the leaf surface. This concentration of the extract can be increased or decreased depending on the intensity of pest attack.

3. Garlic, Chilli, Ginger extract 500 to 1000 ml per tank (10 litres capacity)

This is a mixture of three plant extracts. 18 grammes of garlic is taken, the outer skin is removed and made into paste. A paste of 9 grammes of green chilli and 9 grammes of ginger is made. All the three pastes are dissolved in 1 litre of water. This mixture is stirred well and filtered before spraying.  500 ml of this extract is made with 100 ml of soap solution and 9.4 litres of water and sprayed on the top. 

Vegetable pests: Type-2 (Sucking borers)

Aphids, Green plant hoppers, mealy bugs and white fly

Control measures

1. Andrographis paniculata (siriyanangai) decoction 3 to 5 % or Sida spinosa (Arivalmani Poondu) decoction 5 %
2. Neem Kernel extract 500 to 2000 ml per tank (10 litres capacity)
3. Garlic, Chilli, Ginger extract 500 to 1000 ml per tank (10 litres capacity)
(Preparation mentioned in vegetable pest type-1)

Vegetable pests: Type-3 (Beetles and bugs):Leaf beetle (pumpkin beetle), pod sucking bug, Epilachina beetles of vegetables

Control measures

1. Cow dung extract: Take 1 kg and mix it with 10 litres of water. Filter the extract with a gunny cloth. Add 5 litres of water to the filtrate and again filter it with the same cloth. The filtrate will be a very clear solution.  Spray the filtrate on the plants. 
2. Andrographis paniculata (siriyanangai) decoction 3 to 5 % or Sida spinosa (Arivalmani Poondu) decoction 5 %
3. Neem Kernel extract 500 to 2000 ml per tank (10 litres capacity)
(Preparation mentioned in vegetable pest type-1)

Vegetable diseases:Tomato wilt, Fusarium wilt in Chilli, Cercospora leaf spot, Yellow mosaic viral disease, alternaria leaf spot and fruit rot of all vegetable crops

Control methods

1. General methods

a. 10 % cow’s urine is sprayed once in 10 days thrice.
b. Half litre cow’s urine along with ½ litre sour butter milk is mixed with 9 litres of water. This is sparyed once in 7 days twice.
C. Cow’s urine and water is mixed in the ratio 1:2. The seeds or roots of seedlings are soaked  in this for half an hour before sowing or transplanting .
d. 40 kgs of neem cake per acre is applied as basal manure for vegetable crops to prevent diseases.
e. If there is a disease attack in the nursery, then add 10 % cow’s urine extract along with the water that is used to irrigate the nursery. 

2. Fumigation combined with other organic methods

Image title


10 % cow’s urine extract should be sprayed for crops affected by diseases. On the same day or the next day, fumigation should be done in the evening. Embelica ribes (Vaividanga) is powdered well (200 grammes/acre). It is then put in a wide mouthed pot with burning charcoal and carried in the field in a direction opposite to the wind. On the 7th day after fumigation, 300 ml of Acorus calamus (Vasambu) extract along with one litre of cow’s urine is mixed with 8.7 litres of water (measurement for one tank) and sprayed on the crop. Vasambu powder in 2 litres of water and then filtering the same. This method prevents wilting in chilli.

Non chemical other pest control methods

1. Light trap

Image title

Light traps can be used to monitor and trap the adults thereby reducing the population. Some common light traps that could be used are hurricane lamp, trap with electrical bulb etc., The adult moths have an inherient capacity to get attracted to the light. It should be set up in the field after 5.30 p.m. A large plate or vessel fitted with kerosene mixed water is kept near the light trap. The attracted moths falls in this water and die.





2. Yellow sticky trap

Image title


Castor oil smeared yellow colour empty tins or plates are kept in the field. White flies get trapped on these sticky traps. These are wiped out every day and castor oil is applied again.




3. Bird perches: Install ‘T’ shaped bird perches which are long dried twigs @15-20 per acre. These attract birds for resting and the resting birds devour the larvae in the field.

4. Hand picking method: This method of pest is useful if the crop is in a small area. Pour a small amount of kerosene in a polythene bag and pick up the larvae during evening hours and put it in the bag. The pests can be controlled this way without the use of any chemicals. This should be done when the pest numbers are low.  

Image title


Hand picking of larva: Wild grasses and weeds should be removed from the field bunds and field, since, these are the favourite egg laying spots of the pests.

5. Neem as pest repellent:Take neem leaves or Neem cake or Neem kernels and pound it well and place it in a pot. Add twice the volume of water and tie the mouth of the pot with a cloth. Leave it as such for three days. Then, place the pots on all the 4 corners of a field. In the evening, open the mouth of the pots. The foul smell emanating from the neem products prevents entry of pests into the field.

 

Comments