B.Name : Solanum nigrum
Family : Solanaceae
The whole plant is useful for rheumatalgia, swellings, cough, asthma, bronchitis, wounds, ulcers, flatulence, dyspepsia, hepatomegaly, otalgia, hiccough, opthalmopathy, vomiting, cardiopathy, leprosy, skin diseases, fever, splenomegaly, emollient, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anodyne, vulnerary, digestive, laxative, diuretic, cardiotonic, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, rejuvenating, sedative, alterant and tonic.
Soil and climate:
The plant comes up very well in tropical and subtropical climate upto 2000m altitude. They can be raised on a variety of soils good in organic matter. The plant grows in different kinds of soil including dry, stony, shallow or deep soils. It usually grows in moist habitat in wastelands or as weed. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic regions.12-20 t of fresh herbage yield per hectare.
Nursery Raising and Planting:
Propagation is by seeds. The seedlings are first raised in the nursery and transplanted to the main field 30-45 days after sowing when the plants attain 8-10 cm height. During rainy season, planting is done on ridges while during summer in furrows, at a spacing ranging from 30-90 cm depending upon the stature and spreading habit of the plant. The transplanted seedlings should be given temporary shade for 2-4 days during summer.
Manures and fertilizers:
FYM or compost at 20-25t/ha is applied at the time of land preparation. A moderate fertilizer dose of 75:40:40 N, P2O5, K2O/ha may ne given. P is given as basal dose, N and K are applied in 2-3 split doses.
The nursery beds and plantation should be irrigated periodically as and when required weekly or fortnightly. The plants are irrigated till it flowers.
One or two intercultural operations are needed to control weeds. The plants need earthing up after weeding and topdressing. Irrigation is needed at 3-4 days interval during summer and on alternate days during fruiting period. Plants need staking to avoid lodging due to heavy bearing.
Shoot borers, mealy bugs, leaf Webbers and miners are noted on the crop, which can be controlled by spraying mild insecticides. Root knot nematode, wilting and mosaic diseases are also noted on the crop. Field sanitation, crop rotation and burning of crop residues are recommended.
Harvesting and yield:
The crop is usually ready for harvesting after 4-6 months depending upon the climate and soil. The plants are collected and dried in shades.
Black nightshade berries
Hairy nightshade flowers and berries
Black nightshade flowers