Little Millet (Samai) Cultivation Practices

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 15 Dec 2018 | read
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Little millet (Samai) – Panicum sumatrense

GrainImage title

PanicleImage title

Season and Varieties

CropDistricts grown

Samai

Dharmapuri, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Erode, Salem, Namakkal, Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi.

District/SeasonVariety

a)   June - July (Hill slopes  of Coimbatore and Erode districts)

b)   July-August (Dharmapuri)

c)   September-October    

CO 3, CO (Samai) 4

Paiyur 1, Paiyur 2, CO 3, CO (Samai) 4

CO 3, CO (Samai) 4

PARTICULARSCO 3CO (Samai) 4
ParentageSelection from germplasm bankCO 2 x MS 1684
Duration (days)80 - 8575-80
PigmentationGreenGreen
Tillering abilityHighHigh
Panicleslong, loose panicleOpen and Loose
Grain CharacterBrownGrayish yellow
Grain Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed10661567
Special featuresBold grain, Non-lodging suits for early & late sowingShort duration, suitable for the existing double cropped rainfed situation of North, North Western and Western zones of Tamil Nadu

PARTICULARSPaiyur 1Paiyur 2
ParentagePureline selection from Santhur localPure line selection from PM 295
Duration (days)105 -11085
PigmentationDark greenGreen
Tillering abilityModerateModerate
PaniclesSemi compact longlong, loose panicle
Grain CharacterBrownBrown
Grain Yield (kg/ha)  
Rainfed870850
Special featuresLong durationShort duration, suitable for little millet – Horse gram cropping sequence

 

Seeds and sowing

:

For line planting   10 kg/ha 
For sowing 12.5 kg/ha for use of Gorru or seed drill is recommended.


Image titlePlough the field thoroughly 2 or 3 times using a small iron plough or country plough to fine tilth.

Seed treatment

:

Treat 1 kg of seeds with 2 g Thiram or Carbendazim.

Field preparation

:

Plough the field thoroughly 2 or 3 times using a small iron plough or country plough to fine tilth.

Fertilizer application

:

Apply basally 
FYM/COMPOST: 12.5 t/ha 
Nitrogen   : 44 kg/ha 
Phosphorus  : 22 kg/ha

Spacing

:

For line planting 25 x 10 cm for sowing 10 cm in between plants

Weeding

:

First weeding is done on the 15th DAS and the second weeding on 40th DAS

Thinning

:

Thinning is done soon after weeding or before 20 DAS

Plant Protection

:

Usually no major problem of pests and diseases

Post Harvest Technology

MINOR MILLETS

The minor millets comprise of proso millet or panivaragu (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet or thenai (Setariaitalica), little millet or samai (Panicum sumatrense), barnyard millet or sanwa millet (Echinochloa colona) and kodo millet or varagu (Paspalum scrobiculatum).


Minor millets are high energy, nutritious foods comparable to other cereals and some of them are even better with regard to protein and mineral content. They are particularly low in phytic acid and rich in dietary fibre, iron, calcium and B vitamins. As the millets are consumed by the poor, they guard them against food and nutritional insecurity imposed by various agronomic, socio economic and political factors. Minor millets can thus act as a shield against nutritional deficiency disorders and provide nutritional security.

Supplementation of cereal based products with millets has become increasingly popular due to nutritional and economic advantages. With proper preparation, 30 per cent of minor millets can be gainfully substituted in value added foods belonging to the categories of traditional foods, bakery products, extruded foods and allied mixes for the convenient preparation by rural and town folk at low cost. Poroso millet flour is used as a substitute for rice flour in various snack foods.

Traditionally, finger, kodo and poroso millets are brewed by tribal in certain parts of India. Popping of finger millet is done on cottage industry level and the popped meal is marketed in polyethylene pouches.

Composition

Nutritive Value of Minor Millet 


 Energy
(Kcals)
Moisture
(g)
Protein
(g)
Fat
(g)
Mineral
(g)
Carbohydrates(g)Fibre
(g)
Calcium
(mg)
Phosphorus
(mg)
Iron
(mg)
Italian millet33111124386131290 
Panivaragu341121212270142061
Samai34111851867172209
Sanwa millet307126241065202805
Varagu30913893966271880

 Small millets are rich in phytochemicals, including phytic acid, which is believed to lower cholesterol. Dietary fiber protects against hyperglycemia, some phenolics and tannins act as antioxidants. Small millets have potential benefits to mitigate or delay the onset of complications associated with diabetes.

Value Addition - Traditional foods
 Adhirasam
 Khakra
Bakery Products
 Bread
 Rusk
 Biscuits
 Soup stick
Instant Food Mix - Murukku Mix
PREPARATION OF SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD MIX

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