A. Cultural PractisesDeep summer ploughing followed by fallowing helps in exposing resting stages of pests. Crop rotation with pulses, groundnut, and cotton is adopted. Use of resistant varieties viz Ganga 11, DHM 103, DHM – 105, Trishulata, Pusa, Makka – 1, Gujarat, Makka – 1, HIM – 129, Paras Navjot, Kargil 9001. Timely sowing helps in minimising the pest population. Regular and proper irrigation at flowering onwards reduces wilting situation in case of stalkrots. Two manuals weedings 2-3 & 6 weeks after sowing. Plant spacing 75 cm X 18 cm in Kharif and 60 cm X 18 cm in Rabi Balanced use of fertilizers and micronutrients (NPK 120:60:40) Proper drainage of water management practices.
B. Mechanical PracticesRemove infected plants Use pheromone traps @ 5/ha for monitoring. Use bird scarer for the control of birds. Collect mechanically and destroy white grub beetles during adult emergence period to reduce the pest population.
C. Biological Control
Conserve biocontrol agents like Trichogramma, Apanteles, Eriborus, Carabids, Coccinellids, Chrysopa, spiders and wasps etc.
2. Augmentation:Seed treatment with Trichoderma viridae and Trichoderma harzianum @ 4 g/kg seed against soil borne diseases. Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 1, 00,000/ha/wek synchronising with appearance
D. Botanical PesticidesUse Neem cake @ 200 kg/ha for control of nematodes.
E. Chemical Control MeasuresNeem based, judicious and safe application of pesticides are the most vital tripartite segments of chemical control measures under the ambit of IPM. The use of chemical pesticides should be adopted as a last resort. Spray of Endosulfan 35 EC 0.1 % to control borer and shoot fly at 10 – 15 DAG Granular application of Carbofuran 3g @ 15kg/ha controls borer and a hoot fly on 10 – 15 DAG. Application of Mancozeb @ 2 – 2.5 kg/ha/1000 lit of water twice at 10-15 days interval control charcoal rot and head smut.
F. Weed Management PracticesSummer ploughing for destroying stubbles and perennial weeds. Timely sowing of crop to minimise crop weed competition. Proper spacing to facilitate inter-weeding operation. Two manual weeding 2-3 & 6 weeks after sowing. Pre-emergence application of atrazine at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one manual weeding for controlling grassy and broad leaved weeds.
G. Nematodes Management PracticesDeep ploughing followed by fallowing in summer. Rotation of crop with non-host crops. Destruction of crop stubbles and residues. Soil treatment with carbofuran granules.
H. Rodent Management PracticesBund trimming to minimise rodent harbourage. Demolish the existing rodent burrows. Use of indigenous traps. Apply 2.5% (1: 40) zinc phosphide bait preceded by one day pre-bating followed by bromodiolone (0.005%).