Gall midge, Asphondylia capsici :
Control method: Fluvalinate was the most effective chemical in reducing damage caused by Asphondylia capsici [A. gennadii] on chilli, followed by cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, phosalone, carbofuran, dimethoate, neem oil, garlic extract, neem seed cake extract, diflubenzuron.
Root grub, Holotrichia serrato :
Seasonal occurrence: They are called May -June beetles as they emerge during onset of monsoon i.e., June.
Brief life cycle: Adults are reddish brown beetles. They come out of soil, feed on host plants, mate with the female and go back to soil. Eggs are laid at 1 to 1 ½ feet depth in soil. Eggs are laid near the root zone in nearly planted areas and they prefer moist soil. fecundity of female is 80 eggs. Incubation period lasts for 8-10 days. Grubs are white, having brown head. In first, instar larvae feed on organic matter. Second instar larvae are oracious feeders. Third instar larvae and later instar larvae are sluggish and feed little. Larval period lasts for 5 to 6 months. Pupation takes place deep in the soil. Control method:Application of carbofuran or phorate (at 25 g/ha) to the soil at transplanting or chlorpyrifos as a 0.6% seedling root dip or as a soil drench (at 4 kg/litre per hectare). Digging or earthing up should be carried out around the plants at one month after emergence of beetles, so that first instar larvae could be exposed for bird predation or killed.
Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci :
Season of occurrence: The insect breeds throughout the year. Temperature around 30°C with high humidity favours multiplication of pest.
Brief life cycle: Female lays stalked yellow spindle shaped eggs singly on the lower surface of the leaf. Eggs hatch in about a week's time. The nymphal stage remains attached on the lower side of leaves and takes about 4 weeks to complete development. Number of generations vary between 12- 15 per year. Nymphs are oval, scale like and remain attached to the leaf surface. Adults are tiny, moth like with yellowish body and wings coated with milky white powder.
Control method: Use of yellow sticky traps coated with grease and sticky oils attract white flies. Spray profenophos -2 ml/litre or NSKE -4% (Neem seed kernel extract) -4 kg Neem seed kernel in 100 liters of water.
Source: Dr A. Krishnamurthy, Principal Scientist, Division of Entomology & Nematology, Indian Institute of Horicultural Research Hessaraghatta, Bangalore -560 089