Submitted by kiran yadav
Green manuring is an arable-farming practice in which undecomposed green material is incorporated into soil in order to increase its immediate productivity. Green manure crops can be leguminous as well as non-leguminous. With the current trend toward the use of organic fertilizers, many people are again looking at green manuring as an economical, practical and even aesthetically pleasing method of restoring soil productivity. Unlike synthetic N fertilizers, legumes utilized as green manures (GM) represent a potentially renewable source of on-farm biologically fixed N and may also fix and add large amounts of carbon to cropping systems. It is estimated that during 2002-2003 green manured area was nearly 49.44 lakh hectares in India. Green manuring is widely practiced in Karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, while it is practiced on a limited scale in other states.
Types of Green Manuring
1. Green-leaf manuring: It refers to turning into soil the green leaves and tender green twigs collected from shrubs and trees frown on bunds, wastelands and nearby forest areas. The common shrubs and tress used are (Glyricidia maculata), Sesbania (Sesbania speciosa), Karanj (Pongamia pinnata), etc. this system is common in eastern, southern and central India.
2. Green manuring 'in situ': In this system, green manures are grown and incorporated in the same field which is to be green manured, either as pure crop or as an intercrop with the main crop. Generally, annual legumes such as Sesbania, cowpea and sunnhemp, etc are used for 'in situ' green manuring.
Reference: Kumar. Dinesh and Shivay, Y.S (2007). "Green Manuring: Benefits, Management and Constrants". Kurukshetra, vol.55, No. 4.