|Natural enemies||Attractant/Repellent/Trap plants|
|• Parasitoids: Bracon sp (larval), myosoma sp (larval), Apanteles sp (larval) , Xanthopimpla sp (larval and pupal) etc.,|
• Predators: Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, coccinellids, king crow, wasp, dragonfly, spiders, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantids, fire ants Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) of the genus Rhabditis/Oscheius and Hexamermis sp.
|• Attractant plants for natural enemies: Carrot family, sunflower family, buckwheat, alfalfa, corn, shrubs (lacewing and ladybird beetle).|
• Nectar rich plants with small flowers i.e. anise, caraway, dill, parsley, mustard, sunflower, buckwheat and cowpea (braconid wasp)
• Maintaining hedgerows around the turmeric plantation also helps to maintain a population of ladybird beetle, spiders, etc.
• Mulching with green leaves @ 4–4.5 t/acre at the time of planting. It is repeated @ 2 t/acre at 40 and 90 days after planting.
• Use of Lantana camara and Vitex negundo as mulch at the time of planting may reduce the infection of shoot borer.
• EPN Rhabditis/Oscheius as biopesticides for management of the shoot borer and other insect pests of turmeric.
|• Incorporation of neem cake and pine needle in the soil.|
• Different types of cropping systems cropping like maize, papaya, cucumber, pumpkin, yam, tapioca and different types of leguminous crops.
• Application of oil cakes made from Azadirachta indica, Calophyllumino phyllum, Pongamia glabra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Brassica campestris
• Intercrop ginger with maize and pineapple.
|Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)||• Raised bed 30 cm with 1 meter width.|
• Crop rotation with maize, cotton, and soybean.
• Incorporation of Pseudomonas spp. AM and other BCAs @ 1Kg/per acre with well decomposed FYM
• AM fungi
|Fusarium wilt or yellows:|
|• Raised bed.|
• Practice Biodisinfestation procedures like soil incorporation of cruciferous plants, soil solarisation during hottest months for 60 days.
• Apply pine needle and neem cake powder soil treatments.
|• Intercropping with marigold @ 5:1|
• Deep ploughing or solarized beds of infested fields during summer.
• Repellant plants for nematodes: Marigold plantation, Gliricidia, Asparagus, Dahelia etc.
• Crop rotation: Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Sesbania, Crotalaria spp., Gaillardia, castor bean and Desmodium spp.,
• Border crops: Strips of rye grass, cover crops and mulch beds (rove beetle)
• Soil incorporation of Gliricidia compost, neem cake 0.8 t / acre