Gingelly Cultivation Practices

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 18 Dec 2018 | read
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SESAME (Sesamum indicum)Image title

I. SEASON AND VARIETIES

Zone/ District/SeasonSowing MonthVarieties
I.Western Zone(Irrigated)
Coimbatore, Thiruppur, Erode 
MasipattamFeb- MarchTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Western Zone (Rainfed)
Coimbatore,Thiruppur, Erode, Dindigul
AnippattamJune- JulyCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Theni
KarthigaiNov- DecCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
II.Southern Zone(Irrigated)
Thirunelveli, Karur
ChithiraipattamApr- MayTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Pudukkottai
MargazhiDec- JanTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1,
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Southern Zone (Rainfed)
Madurai
AnipattamJune-JulyCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Virudhunagar, Pudukkottai,
AdippattamJuly-AugCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Karur
PurattasipattamSep- OctCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai, Thirunelveli, Thoothukudi
KarthigaipattamNov- DecCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
III.North EasternZone (Irrigated)
Kancheepuram, Cuddalore, Vellore
MargazhipattamDec- JanCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
Thiruvannamalai
MasipattamFeb- MarchTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Villupuram
ChithiraipattamApr- MayTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Thiruvallur
AnipattamJune-JulyCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
North Eastern Zone(Rainfed)
Vellore, Thiruvannamalai
AnippattamJune-JulyCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Kancheepuram, Cuddalore
AdippattamJuly-AugCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Thiruvallur
PurattasipattamSep- OctCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
Villupuram
KarthigaipattamNov- DecCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2
IV.North Western Zone (Irrigated)
Namakkal
MargazhipattamDec- JanTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Salem, Perambalur, Ariyalur
MasipattamFeb- MarchTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
North Western Zone(Rainfed)
Salem,Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri
AnippattamJune-JulyCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
Perambalur, Ariyalur
AdippattamJuly-AugCO 1, TMV 3,TMV 7
V.Delta Zone (Irrigated)
Thanjavur, Thiruchirapalli
MasipattamFeb- MarchTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Thiruvarur
ChithiraipattamApr- MayTMV 3, TMV 4, TMV 6, TMV 7, CO 1, 
VRI (SV) 1, SVPR 1, VRI (SV) 2
Delta Zone (Rainfed)
Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam
ThaippattamJan- FebVRI(SV) 1
Thiruchirapalli
PurattasipattamSep- OctCO 1, TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 7, SVPR 1, 
VRI(SV) 2

DESCRIPTION OF SESAME VARIETIES

ParticularsCO 1TMV 3TMV 4TMV 5TMV 6
ParentageDerivative of (TMV 3 X SI 1878) X SI 1878Derivative of South Arcot local X MalabarPureline selection from Sattur localPureline selection from Srivaikundam localPureline selection from Andhra Pradesh Variety
Duration (days)85-9080-8585-9080-8585-90
Average Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed450-650400-650-450-650 
Irrigated750-790625-750700-850-700-950
Oil content % 51505154
HabitErect with profuse branching and short internodes on the main stemBushy with profuse branchingBushy with profuse branchingErect with moderate branchingErect with moderate branching
Capsules4 loculed4 loculed4 loculed4 loculed4 loculed
SeedsIntense dark brown almost blackDark brownBrownBrownBrown
ParticularsTMV 7VRI(SV) 1VRI(SV) 2SVPR 1
ParentageDerivative of SI 250 X ES 22Pureline selection from Tirukattupalli localDerivative of VS 9003 X TMV 6Pureline selection from Western Ghat
Duration (days)80-8570-7580-8575-80
Average Yield (kg/ha)
Rainfed850450-650650-700600
Irrigated920650-900700-750800
Oil content %505151.953.8
HabitErect, indeterminate with Profuse branchingErect with moderate branchingProfuse branchingErect with moderate branching
Capsules4 loculed4 loculed4 loculed4 loculed
SeedsBrownBrownReddish brownWhite


TMV (SV) 7Image title

CROP MANAGEMENT

1. FIELD PREPARATION

  • Plough the field with tractor twice or with mould board plough thrice or five times with a country plough.
  • Break the clods in between ploughings and bring the soil to a fine tilth to facilitate quick germination as the seeds are small.
  • Chiselling for soils with hard pan: Chisel the soils having hard pan formation at shallow depth with chisel plough first at 0.5 m interval in one direction and then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one once in three years. Apply 12.5t FYM/composted coir pith besides chiselling.
  • For irrigated gingelly, form beds of size 10 m2 or 20 m2 depending upon the availability, inflow of water and slope of the land. Level the beds perfectly without any depressions to prevent water stagnation, which will affect the germination adversely.
  • In rice fallows, field is ploughed once with optimum moisture, seeds are sown immediately and covered with one more ploughing.

2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

  • Spread FYM or composted coir pith or compost @ 12.5 t/ha evenly on the unploughed field and plough it in.
  • If the manure is not applied before commencement of ploughing, spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost evenly on the field before the last ploughing and incorporate in the soil.
  • If soil tests are not available, follow the blanket recommendations. Rainfed: Apply 23:13:13 kg NPK/ha or 17:13:13 kg NPK/ ha + 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos(1200 g/ha). Irrigated: Apply 35:23:23 kg NPK/ha or 21:23:23 kg NPK/ha + 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets(600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos(1200 g/ha)
  • Apply full dose of N, P and K basally. Add 5 kg of Manganese sulphate per hectare. Apply 50% of the recommended P 2O 5and K 2O with full recommended dose of N to irrigated gingelly raised after groundnut fertilized with 100% of recommended NPK. Open furrows to a depth of 5 cm and 30 cm apart and place the fertilizer mixture along the furrows and cover to a depth of 3 cm with soil before sowing.
  • If furrow application is not done, broadcast the fertilizer mixture evenly on the beds before sowing.
  • Apply TNAU MN mixture @ 7.5 kg ha-1 as enriched FYM for rainfed sesame and TNAU MN mixture @ 12.5 kg ha-1 as enriched FYM for irrigated sesame. (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade)

3. APPLICATION OF AZOSPIRILLUM

25% of the N can be substituted by 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos (1200 g/ha) by seed treatment and 10 packets of Azospirillum  (2000  g/ha)  and  10 packets  (2000  g/ha)      of Phosphobacteria  or 20 packets  of Azophos(4000 g/ha)as soil application.

4. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS

Manganese deficiency : Leaves develop interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic tissue, later develop light brown or husk coloured necrotic lesions. Mix 5 kg / ha MnSO4 with 45 kg of soil and broadcost evely in the beds after sowing.

Zinc deficiency: Middle leaves develop chlorosis in the interveinal areas and necrosis along the apical leaf margins. Mix 5 kg/ha of Zinc sulphate with 45 kg of soil and broadcast evenly in the beds after sowing.

Note: Do not incorporate the micronutrient in the soil.

5. SEED RATE

Adopt a seed rate of 5 kg/ha.

6. SPACING

Give a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants. b) For rice fallows, seeds are broadcasted and thinned to maintain 11 plants/m 2.

7. QUALITY OF SEEDS

Select mature, good quality seeds free from pest and fungal damage.

8. SEED TREATMENT

Treat the seed with Trichoderma@ 4g/kg. This can be done just before sowing. SUCH SEEDS SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES or treat the seed with Thiram 4 g or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seeds before sowing.

9. SOWING

  • Sow the seeds preferably in lines.
  • Mix the seeds with four times its volume of dry sand and drop the mixture evenly along the furrows in which fertilizers are applied.
  • Sow the seeds to a depth of 3 cm and cover with soil.
  • The optimum time of sowing for VRI (SV) 1 sesame is second fortnight of February to first fortnight of March under summer irrigated conditions.

10. WATER MANAGEMENT

  • Irrigate at sowing and give life irrigation 7 days after sowing depending on the soil and climatic condition and allow excess water to percolate.
  • Give one pre-flowering irrigation (25 days): One at flowering and one or two at pod setting. An irrigation at flowering period is critical.

NOTE: The critical stage for moisture requirement is the flowering phase i.e, between 35th to 45th days of sowing. During the maturity phase, moisture status should be low. If more water is given during this phase, maturity of seeds is affected and filling up of the capsules will be poor. Therefore, stop irrigation after 65 days of sowing.

11. THINNING

Thin out the seedlings to a spacing of 15 cm between the plants on the 15th day of sowing and 30 cm on 30th day of sowing. This operation is very important for the crop in order to induce basal branches.

12. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Apply, PE application of Pendimethalin 3.3 l/ha followed by me hand weeding on 25th DAS
  • For irrigated sesame, apply PE alachlor @ 1.5 kg (or) Metolachlor @ 1.0 kg ha-1 followed by one hand weeding on 25th DAS

13. HARVESTING

a. Decide when to harvest

  • Observe the crop, considering the average duration of the crop.
  • Twenty five per cent of the leaves from the bottom are shed and the top leaves loose their colour and turn yellow at maturity.
  • The colour of the stem turns yellow.
  • The colour of the capsules turn yellow upto the middle.
  • Harvest before the bottom capsules turn brown.
  • Examine the 10th capsule from the bottom by opening. If the seeds attained the full color of the variety harvest may be taken up.
  • If harvest is delayed/ the capsules will dehisce resulting in yield reduction.

b. Harvest

  • Pull out the plants from the bottom.
  • Stack in the open, one over the other in a circle with the stems pointing out and the top portion pointing inside.
  • Cover the top with straw, so that humidity and temperature increases.
  • Cure like this for 3 days, shake the plants. About 75 per cent of the seeds will fall off.
  • Dry the plants for one more day and again shake the plants. All the mature seeds will fall off.
  • Winnow the seeds and dry in the sun for 3 days.  Stir once in 3 hours to give uniform drying.
  • Collect the seeds and store in gunnies.

Crop Protection

Pest of Gingelly

Leaf webber/ roller and capsule borer: Antigastra catalaunalis

Symptoms of damage:

  • Image titleThe young larvae roll together a few top leaves and feed them
  • In the early stage of infestation, the plant dies without producing any branch or shoot
  • In later stage of attack, infested shoots stop growing
  • At flowering, larvae feed inside the flowers and on capsule formation, larvae bore into capsule and feed on developing seeds

Identification of the pest:

  • Larvae: Greenish in colour with black head having short white hairs
  • Adult: Medium sized moth with reddish yellow forewings

Management:

  • Two sprayings with neem formulation 0.03%
  • Spray any one of the following:
    • Carbaryl 50 WP 1000 g/ha in 500 litre of water
    • Neem seed kernels extract 5%
    • Neem oil 2% (two rounds)
  • Use alternate insecticides each time and avoid the usage of same
insecticide every time
Hawk or Dead head moth (Sphinx caterpillar): Acherontia styx

Symptoms of damage:

  • The young larvae roll together a few top leaves and feed them
  • In the early stage of infestation, the plant dies without producing any branch or shoot
  • In later stage of attack, infested shoots stop growing
  • At flowering, larvae feed inside the flowers and on capsule formation, larvae bore into capsule and feed on developing seeds

 

Caterpillar feedingImage title

Identification of the pest:

  • Larvae:  Greenish in colour with black head having short white hairs
  • Adult: Brownish giant hawk moth, thorax with a characteristic skullmarking, abdomen has violet and yellow band. Forewings are dark brown and Hind wings are yellowish with 2 black lines

Management:

  • Deep ploughing exposes the pupae for predation to insectivorous birds
  • Hand picking collection and destruction of caterpillars
  • Two rounds of dusting with phosalone 4% or malathion 5%, first at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and second at 45 DAS

LarvaImage title

PupaImage title

AdultImage title

Linseed gall fly: Dasyneura sesame 

Symptoms of damage:

  • Fully grown larvae make a hole in the bud and damage the flower

Identification of the pest:

  • Larva: Maggots are whitish, legless
  • Adult: Mosquito like fly

Management:

  • The infested buds should be removed and destroyed to reduce further incidence of the pest
  • Release larval parasite Pteromalus fasciatus in the field
  • Spray crop at bud initiation stage with dimethoate @0.03%
Gall fly: Asphondylia sesami

Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggots feed inside the floral bud
  • Leading to formation of gall like structure which do not develop in to flower/capsules
  • The flower buds wither and drop

Identification of the pest:

  • Larva: Maggots are whitish, legless and with body tapering exteriorly
  • Adult: Mosquito like fly

Management:

  • Two sprayings with neem formulation 0.03%
  • Spray any one of the following
    • Carbaryl 50 WP 1000 g/ha in 500 litre of water
    • Neem seed kernels extract 5%
    • Neem oil 2% (two rounds)
  • Use alternate insecticides each time and avoid the usage of same
insecticide every time

Infested flower budsImage title

Leaf hopper: Orosius albicinctus

Symptoms of damage:

  • Image titleCurling of leaf edges and leaves turn red or brown
  • The leaves dry up and shed
  • Vector of sesamum phyllody

 Identification of the pest:

  • Adult: Light brown coloured hopper

Management:

  • Spray any one of the following
    • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1200 m l/ha
    • Quinalphos 25% EC 2000 ml/ha
Aphids:  Aphis gossypii

Symptoms of damage:

  • Image titleCrinkling and curling of leaves
  • Leaves appear shiny and sticky due to honeydew excreted by the insects
  • Later sooty mold grows on honey dew and leaves have a black coating

Identification of the pest:

  • Adult: Yellowish to dark

Management:

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid (5g/kg seed) keeps the crop free of sucking pests over a month.
  • Paint on stem with a mixture of imidacloprid: water (1:20) at 20, 40 and 60 days of sowing

Diseases of Gingelly 

Bacterial blight: Xanthomonas campestris pv. sesami 

Symptom

  • Image titlePlants of all stage are affected.
  • Water soaked, small and irregular spots are formed on the leaves which later increases and turn brown, under favourable conditions.
  • Leaves become dry and brittle, severely infected leaves defoliate.
  • Management
  • Crop rotation.
  • Use resistant variety like T-58
  • Early planting i.e. immediately after onset of monsoon.
  • Destruction of crop residues.
  • Steep the seed in Agrimycin-100 (250 ppm) or Streptocycline suspension (0.05%) for 30 minutes.
  • Foliar spray of Streptocycline (500 ppm) as soon as symptoms are noticed.
  • Continue two more sprays at 15 days interval if necessary.

Cercospora leaf spot / White spot: Cercospora sesami, C. sesamicola

Symptom
  • Image titleDisease appears as small, angular brown leaf spots of 3 mm diameter with gray centre and dark margin delimited by veins.
  • In severity of the disease defoliation occurs. Under favourable conditions, the disease spreads to leaf petiole, stem and capsules producing linear dark coloured deep seated lesions.

Management

  • Spray Mancozeb 1000g/ha

Damping off / Root Rot: Macrophomina phaseolina

Symptom

  • Image titleThe fungus attacks young seedling, their stem become water soaked soft and incapable of supporting the seedling which falls over and dies.
  • On older seedlings elongated brownish black lesions appear which increase in length and width girdling the stem and plant dies.
  • Management
  • Soil application of P. fluorescens or T. viride – 2.5 Kg / ha + 50 Kg of well decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.
  • Spot drench Carbendazim – 1 gm/ litre

Powdery mildew: Oidium sp., Sphaerotheca fuliginia, Leveillula sp.

Symptom
  • Image titleSmall cottony spots appear on the infected leaves which gradually spread on the lamina.
  • Defoliation of severely infected plant occurs before maturity.

Management

  • Apply any one of the following Sulphur dust 25 kg/ha Wettable sulphur 25 kg/ha

Sesamum phyllody: Phytoplasma

Symptom
  • Image titleAll floral parts are transformed into green leafy structures followed by abundant vein clearing in different flower parts.
  • In severe infection, the entire inflorescences is replaced by short twisted leaves closely arranged on a stem with short internodes, abundant abnormal branches bend down.
  • Finally, plants look like witches broom.
  • If capsules are formed on lower portion of plant they do not yield quality seeds.
  • Transmitted by the vector Orosius albicintus
  • Remove and destroy infected plants.
  • To control vector, spray Monocrotophos 36 or Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha combined with intercropping of Sesamum + Redgram (6 : 1)

Root rot: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.sesami

Symptom

  • Image titleThe plant gets infected at any stage of crop development.
  • Symptoms are first visible in the lower leaves and then it progresses upwards.
  • Yellowing, drooping and desiccation of leaves occur.
  • In severe case, entire plant gets defoliated, bends down and ultimately dries up.
  • Vascular bundles turn brown starting from root and gets extended up to tip.
  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 12.5 tonnes/ha is helpful in reducing the incidence of the disease
  • Destroy the diseased plant debris by burning of burying in the soil.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit
  •  Soil application of  P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.

Post Harvest Technology 

Like pulses, oil seeds are rich in protein and in addition they contain a high level of fat. Hence they are not only good sources of protein but are concentrated source of energy. They do not contain an appreciable amount of carbohydrate but contain high level of B-vitamins. Groundnuts are particularly rich in thiamine and nicotinic acid. Oil seeds produced in the country are mostly used for oil extraction.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF OILSEEDS

 Energy
(Kcals)
Moisture
(g)
Protein
(g)
Fat
(g)
Mineral
(g)
Fibre
(g
Carbohydrates(g)Calcium
(mg)
Phosphorus(mg)Iron
(mg)
Gingelly seeds56351843532514505709
Groundnut567325402326903502
Groundnut roasted570226402327773703
Mustard seeds5418204042244907008
Safflower seeds35651326335182368235
Sunflower seeds6205205241182806705

PROCESSING OF OILSEEDS
In India oilseeds like groundnut, mustard, safflower, are more commonly grown for edible oil purpose.

Oil extraction: The oilseeds are cleaned, dehusked and oil is extracted by mechanical pressing, screw pressing, prepress solvent extraction and direct solvent extraction.

Protein isolate: After solvent extraction, it is treated with dilute sodium hydroxide at pH8. The proteins are separated by filtration and washing with water and then used for different purposes.

Groundnut

Groundnuts resemble other pulse in general nutritive value, except that they are rich in fat. Groundnuts are boiled or roasted and consumed. But the chief product is the oil, which can be used either as cooking oil or for making margarine and soap. The secondary product is the residue or cake left after the expression of the oil. It is also purified and used in supplementary mix. The major proteins of groundnut are arachin and conarachine which is lacking in lysine and methionine and its quality can be improved by either adding these amino acids or foods rich in the same.

Extraction of Sunflower Oil    


Both solvent extraction process and mechanical expression methods are in use for the extraction of oil from the sunflower oilseeds. In the expression of oil by the screw press, 60 to 70% of the oil from the meal is recovered. The operations and the processes followed for the mechanical extraction of oil using a screw press is outlined below. 
The oilseeds are cleaned to remove all foreign materials including stones, metals and dust from the seed.
Then dehulling of the clean seed is done to reduce the fibre content and increase the oil and the protein contents in the dehulled kernel.  
The kernels are then allowed to pass through the roller mills to reputre the seed and increase the oil recovery efficiency. 
The rolled flakes are then cooked by heat treatment for further increase in oil recovery.
The oil from the cooked, flaked is extracted by pressing the cooked flakes in the expellers. The oil is then filtered to remove the seed particles. 
The sizes of the deoiled cakes are reduced and then these are bagged for storage.
The crude oil is refined for the production of edible grade oil.

 

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