Farm Machinery - Harvesting And Threshing Equipment's

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 03 Feb 2019 | read
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1.Paddy Repear HarvesterImage title

1.

Function

:

For harvesting and windrowing non-lodging paddy varieties. It is a self propelled unit  and width of coverage is 0.75 m.

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Self propelled 

 

ii. Power requirement

:

3 hp kerosene engine, 1 operator and 2 women labourers to collect and bundle the cut crop

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

2200 x 850 x 1170 mm

 

iv. Capacity

:

1 ha / day

3.

General Information

:

The machine consists of gear box, ground wheels, handle, cutter bar assembly, star wheels and gathering header assembly. The crop should be manually harvested along the four sides of the field for a width of 0.5m and cleared from the field for providing space to the machine. At one corner an area of 2 x 1.5m should be manually harvested to place the machine initially in the field. Since the harvested crop is discharged at the right side of the reaper the harvested should be turned always to the left side.  

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs.1 00,000/-

5.

Salient features

:

  • Fuel consumption   - 1 litre/ha 
  • Height of cut            - 50 mm
  • Labour                       - 1 operator and 2 women laboure (to collect and bundle the cut   crop)

2.Mini Combine Harvester for PaddyImage title

1.

Function

:

For combined operations of Harvesting, threshing and  winnowing of paddy

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Self propelled

 

ii. Capacity

:

1 ha / day

3.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs.3,00,000/-

4.

Cost of operation

:

Rs.1300 / ha

5.

Special features

 

  • Suitable for small and marginal farmers
  • Can be easily transported to inaccessible fields
  • Saving in cost: 80%
  • Saving in labour: 91%

3.Power Tiller Operated Groundnut HarvesterImage title

1.

Function

:

For harvesting groundnut

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Power tiller operated

 

ii. Power requirement

:

10 to 12 hp 

 

iii. Capacity

:

0.8 ha / day

3.

Cost of the unit

:

 Rs.12,000/-

4

Cost of operation

:

Rs.700 / ha

5.

Salient features

:

  • Suitable for harvesting all varieties of groundnut
  • Suitable for all makes of 10 to 12 hp power tiller
  • Savings in time: 90%
  • Savings in cost: 30%

4.Groundnut Harvester Image title

1.

Function

:

For harvesting and windrowing groundnut crop at soil moisture levels of 8 -15 %.

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Mounted implement 

 

ii. Power requirement

:

35-45 hp tractor

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

2050 x 2100 x 1150 mm

 

iv. Weight 

:

300 kg

 

v. Capacity

:

2.0 ha / day

3.

General Information

:

The groundnut harvester consists of a soil loosening tool, a pick conveying mechanism and gatherer windrower. The soil engaging tool is made of 50 mm thick x 100 mm wide x 180 mm length straight mild steel blade. The tool at 150 rake angle is fixed to a main frame through shanks at both side. The pickup conveying mechanism of length 1200mm is made of to 600mm endless ship chains spaced  1800 mm apart. At the rear a gatherer windrower the conveying crop.

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs. 35,000/-

5.

Salient features

:

 

Harvesting and soil separation efficiency is 99 and 95%.

 

Saving in labour cost and time is 32 and 96 % respectively.


5.Impact type Groundnut StripperImage title

1.

Function

:

To remove groundnut pods from vines

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Operated by 2.5 HP kerosene engine

 3

Capacity

:

0.4 ha / day

 

General Information

:

Operator assisted by two helpers 
Suit to the requirements of medium and small farmers
The vines are not fed into the stripper hence the fodder value of the vines is maintained

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs.28,000/-

5.

cost of operation  (Stripping)

:

Rs.833 per ha.

5.

Salient features

:

  • Stripping efficiency :          100%
  • Damage to pods    :           less than 2%
  • Saving in labour     :           37%
  • Saving in cost        :           17%

6.Groundnut Thresher Image title

1.

Function

:

Separation of groundnut pods from harvested  plants

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Spike tooth , axial flow and oscillating  sieves

 

ii. Overall dimensions

:

2050 x 1650 x 1570 mm

 

iii. Weight 

:

430 kg

 

iv. Cylinder speed

:

225 rpm

 

v.  Blower speed

:

1500 rpm

3.

General Information

:

 The thresher is an axial flow type and consists of feed hopper, spike-tooth cylinder, concave, oscillating sieves and blower.  The pegs are arranged in 10 rows on the cylinder.  The cylinder is enclosed with the concave made of wire mesh with sieve opening of 80 x 25 mm size.  Below this cylinder and concave assembly two oscillating sieves are fitted to separate the pods from leaves, soil and other dust materials.  The blower fitted in between the two sieves helps to blow out the leaves.  

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs. 60,000/- without  prime mover

5.

Salient features

:

 

Capacity                       :  150 kg pods/hour

 

Labour requirement      :  2 men & 2 women

 

Pod damage                 : 1 to 3 %

 

Cleaning efficiency        : 92 %

 

Threshing efficiency      : 98 %

 

Saving in cost               : 32%

 

Saving in time               : 70%


7.Power Tiller Operated Turmeric Harvester  Image title

1.

Function

:

For   harvesting turmeric rhizomes

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Mounted type

 

ii. Power requirement

:

8 -10 hp power tiller 

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

400 x 636 x 1665 mm

 

iv. Weight 

:

67 kg

 

v. Capacity

:

0.6 ha per day

3.

General Information

:

The unit consists of a blade with three bar points for  easy penetration into the soil.  To the rear end of the blade six  slats spaced at  mm apart are hinged at both ends. The oscillating motion for the slats is obtained through eccentric provided on either side of the unit. The eccentrics are connected to a shaft provided at the top portion of the unit. The power is transmitted from the clutch pulley of the power tiller to  a reduction gear box mounted near the hitch bracket assembly of the power tiller.  From the gear box the power is transmitted to the  shaft of the turmeric digger unit through V belt transmission.  The pneumatic wheels are replaced with a pair of special type cage wheels to accommodate the height of ridges.  

4.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs. 14,000/-

5.

Salient features

:

 

65 % saving in cost  and  90 % saving in time. 

 

Damage caused to the rhizomes is 0.5 % as compared to 4.2 % in manual harvesting.

 

The undug rhizomes left in the field  is  0.8 % as  compared to 4.8 % in manual harvesting.


8.Tractor Drawn Turmeric Harvester Image title

1.

Function

:

For  harvesting Turmeric rhizomes

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Mounted type

 

ii. Power requirement

:

35 - 45 hp Tractor 

 

iii.  Width of the digger

:

120 cm

 

iv. Capacity

:

1.6 ha per day

3.

General Information

:

The unit consists of a blade with five bar points for easy penetration into the soil. The blade is fixed at an inclination of 200 to a cultivator frame with straight tynes at both ends. It can be hitched to the tractor through three – point linkage connection provided in the front portion  of the unit. The rake angle of the blade can be adjusted by moving the blade through a clevis provided at the bottom of the two tynes. At the rear end of the clevis two converging slats are fixed to convey the harvested turmeric with the soil on to the lift rods without spilling to the side ways. To the rear end of the blade seven lift rods of 250 mm length are provided. For digging, the bar points with the blade penetrate into the soil, lift the turmeric rhizomes from the soil. The soil slip back to the ground and the dug out rhizomes deposited at the centre of the unit.  

4.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs.  25,000/-

5.

Salient features

:

 

Results in 70 per cent saving in cost and 90 per cent in time when compared to manual digging.

 

Extent of damage caused to the rhizomes is very much less (2.83 per cent). 


9.Fodder Sorghum Harvester 

Image title

 1.

Function

:

Harvesting and windrowing the fodder sorghum

2.

Specification

:

i. Overall dimensions

:

1100 x 1210 x 1280 mm

ii. Weight 

:

93 kg

iii. Width of cutter bar

:

100 cm  

3.

General Information

:

It is a modified version of IRRI reaper consisting of cutter bar assembly, gathering header, star wheels, conveyors, hitch frame attachment with an adjustable skid.  The whole unit is attached to an IRRI designed power tiller. The front assembly has been suitably modified with one more set of gathering header assembly consisting of  headers with star wheel assembly, conveyor flat belt with lugs provided at a height of 45 cm from the existing conveyor unit. The additional header assembly is fixed exactly above the lower header assembly. The main frame supporting all above components are also suitably modified. The power for the top conveyor belt is taken by extending the shaft from lower conveyor belt.  

4.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs. 1 10,000/- 

5.

Salient features

:

 

Operated by                  :    5.4 hp light weight diesel engine

 

Coverage                      :    0.75 ha/day

 

Saving in labour          :    85%

 

Saving in cost              :    43%

 

Saving in time              :    85% 

10.Maize Husk cum ShellerImage title

1

Use

:

For removal of husk from maize cob and separation of grains

2

Type

:

Power operated

3

 Overall dimension

3000 x 710 x 1450 mm

4

 Capacity

:

100 quintals of cob/day

5Power required 7.5 hp electric motor / diesel engine or tractor pto power

6

General Information

:

The machine consists of a hopper, rotor, sieve, blower, auger and an elevator.  The removal of sheath and shelling of cob take place in the rotor sieve assembly.  The shelled kernels are carried by the auger to one end and then elevated to the desired level for direct collection in bags. Shelling Efficiency is 98%.

7

Cost of the unit

:

Rs.1,00,000/-

11.Castor ShellerImage title

1.

Function

:

For shelling and cleaning castor pods

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Power operated

 

ii. Power requirement

:

0.5 hp electric motor or one person

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

1320 x 1050 x 800 mm

 

iv. Weight

:

72.5 kg

 

v. Capacity

:

165 kg /h

3.

General Information

:

Traditionally castor is shelled manually after drying under sunlight, either by beating with It consists of feeding hopper, rubber coated disc type shelling unit and a blower. Castor is fed to the shelling unit through feed hopper. It is suitable for shelling and winnowing of dried castor pods. The unit can be either operated manually or with a 0.5 hp electric motor. It saves 88 per cent labour and operating time and 69 per cent on cost of operation compared to conventional method of manually beating or rubbing with wooden plank.

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs. 15,000 /-

12.Coconut Tree Climber

Climbing Up

Image title

Getting Down

1.

Function

:

To harvest the coconuts  

2.

Specification

:

i. Type

:

manual operated unit

ii. Power requirement

:

One male  or female

iii. Capacity

:

50 to 60 trees / day 

3.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs.3000/-

5.

Cost of operation (approx)

Rs.1.50 / tree

6.

Salient features

:

  • Useful for climbing coconut trees for harvesting nuts, cleaning and other operations
  • Any unskilled person including ladies can climb the coconut trees using this unit
  • Requires 1.5 minutes to climb a tree of 30 to 40 ft height

13.Oil Palm Harvesting ToolImage title

1.

Function

:

For harvesting of oil palms  

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Manual  operated unit

 

ii. Power requirement

:

One male 

 

iii. Capacity

:

144 bunches / day

3.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

Rs.800/- including 10 feet  aluminium pole

4.

Cost of operation

:

Rs.1.11 / fresh fruit bunch

5.

Salient features

:

  • The sickle can be attached to as well as detached from long aluminium poles of various lengths as per the height of the tree
  • The operator can work for long time continuously without fatigue
  • Saves cost and time
  • 50% more bunches harvested than conventional method
  • Savings in time: 51%
  • Savings in cost: 33%

14.Tractor Operated Fruit-Shake HarvesterImage title

1.

Function

:

For harvesting fruits by shaking branches

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Mounted implement

 

ii.Power requirement

:

35 – 45 hp tractor

3.

Cost of the unit (Approx)

:

Rs.3500/-

4.

Cost of operation

 

Rs.8 per 100 kg

5.

Salient features

:

  • Harvest fruits by shaking branches
  • Tractor PTO operated
  • Suitable for tamarind, lime and other such fruits
  • Harvesting efficiency: 85%
  • Saving in time: 95%

15.Mulberry Stem Cutter  Image title  

1.

Function

:

To cut the mulberry stem for planting  

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Hand cum pedal operated unit

 

ii. Power requirement

:

One male 

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

750 x 600 x 1050 mm

 

iv. Weight 

:

26 kg

 

v. Capacity

:

2400 stems per hour

3.

General Information

:

The unit consists of a wooden platform in which a cutting knife is fixed by means of a hinge. The knife is operated by means of a long handle. Stems are placed on the platform at an angle of 45° and they are cut by pressing the handle. The handle reaches its original position by the action of a spring attached to the other end.

4.

Cost of the unit (approx)

:

 Rs.4,000/-

5.

Salient features

:

 

The stems are cut easily without damage.


16.Power Tiller Operated Lawn MowerImage title

1.

Function

:

For mowing lawn grass

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Mounted type

 

ii. Power requirement

:

8 -10 hp power tiller 

 

iii. Overall dimensions

:

400 x 636 x 1665 mm

 

iv. Weight 

:

79 kg

 

v. Capacity

:

0.8 ha per day

3.

General Information

:

The cylindrical lawn mower attachment to power tiller consists of 750 mm width and 235 mm diameter cylinder fitted with 12 numbers of helical steel blades on its periphery. A horizontal ledger plate with a concave groove is provided beneath the cylinder. The rotating cylinder and the stationary ledger plate are fitted in a frame, which in turn is attached to the power transmission case and rotary driving shaft support arms. The power is transmitted from the power tiller rotary drive shaft to the cylinder shaft through chain and sprocket. A tail wheel is provided for controlling the height of cut. The unit is attached to the power tiller rotary hitch bracket assembly of the transmission case and the rear portion of the unit derives support from the power tiller handle through two support arms. During the operation in the field, the grass is cut when it is passed through the clearance between the rotating cylinder and the ledger plate and the cut grass is blown off. A shield is provided to protect the operator against throwing of cut grasses and stones.   

4.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs.16,000/- 

5.

Salient features

:

 

The unit is simple to operate and easy to handle

 

Suitable for maintenance of lawns

 

Results in 50 per cent and 64 per cent saving in cost and time respectively


17.Lawn / Shrub Mowing Attachment to Power WeederImage title

1.

Function

:

The machine is capable of cutting grasses on the farm roadsides and mowing lawns.

2.

Specification

:

 

 

i. Type

:

Self propelled

 

ii. Power requirement

:

3 hp petrol / kerosene engine and an operator 

 

iii. Capacity

:

400 to 500 sq.m per hour for a single pass

3.

General Information

:

The weeds and grasses grown along the farm roadsides and in the bunds which needs periodical cleaning is the major problem faced by the farmers. Moreover, these grasses and weeds are not to be uprooted fully to ensure and prevent soil loss due to rain and wind. Similar aspect prevails in the landscaping process also like lawns. The commercially available units for lawn mowing and grass cutting are costing heavily.    
Two curved and sharpened high carbon steel blades of total length 38cm are mounted on a vertical shaft. A 3 hp petrol start kerosene run engine powers the self propelled traction unit and the lawn mover. The power is taken from the gearbox  through v-belt, pulley and through a 90° conversion gearbox. The speed conversion ratio from the engine to the blades is 16:10. The traction wheel is replaced with 18” diameter and 1.5”thick six spoked rigid wheel for easy maneuverability. The front and back sides of the blades are covered with rubber and metal sheets respectively as a precaution to avoid the stones throwing away by the blades during operation. Width of coverageof the unit is  450 mm and the height of cut is 25 mm.  

4.

Cost of the unit

:

Rs.35,000/-

18.Sugarcane DetrasherImage title

1

Function

:

For  de-trashing  the sugarcane leaves

2.

Specification

:

i. Type

:

Manual operated

3.

Cost of the unit (Approx)

:

Rs.100/-

4.

Cost of operation

:

Rs.900 / ha

5.

Salient features

:

  • Labour requirement is less
  • Easy for handling
  • Reduced cost of de-trashing
  • Used for all varieties of cane
  • Also removes the sprouted buds
  • Easy collection of de-trashed leaves

 

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