It is said that Second Green Revolution has to come from Eastern India, because its potential has yet to be exploited .Eastern UP, Bihar, WB ,Odhisa ,Jarkhand comprises of eastern India. It is natural that the green revolution (GR) has made some impact on these states. It is planned to have state wise analysis of the impact made by the first GR, and potential and prospect of integrated Revolution in eastern India. West Bengal(WB) has made all round development in last 4 decades. An attempt has therefore been made to analyze the case of WB to understand the situation. There after the cases of other states would be taken up for analysis.
During 1942-43, India faced serious set back due to the tragic famine popularly known as Bengal famine. It claimed about five million lives which was more than the total people died in the second world war (1940-45 ).Failure of rice production due to occurrence of brown spot disease and also empathy of British Government to manage the distribution of food grains were the main cause of famine. After the second world war was over, British Government started to take certain corrective measures like establishment of Central Rice Research Institute(CRRI),Cuttack to evolve high yielding dwarf rice varieties through crossing of Indian tall varieties with dwarf rice varieties of Japan. In addition," Grow More Food Campaign " was launched where in use of HYV seeds, fertilizer , irrigation water and plant protection materials were the key components. Use of K would have reduced the incidence of brown spot disease. And thus it could have got rid of famine.
At the time of independence, the country was deficient in food grains production. Therefore, the most important problem of India was to gain self sufficiency in food grains production.
During 1950-51 India produced about 51mt of food grains. In 1950 the first public sector fertilizer company started fertilizer production at Sindri, Bihar. Expansion of irrigation project through different river valley projects, soil fertility evaluation through establishment of soil testing labs, all India soil survey organization etc were given priority to produce enough food. Agriculture research, education and extension were given a boost by providing American system of Research,Education and Extension at Indian Agriculture Research Institute,(IARI) New Delhi and also establishing land grant university at G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology at Pant Nagar in 1960 and Punjab Agricultural university in 1962. Establishment of many such universities followed thereafter in other states.
By mid 1960s, India was ready to take a bold step for higher production.
Introduction of HYV Seeds
During mid 60s, with help of Dr Norman E Borlaug who won Nobel Peace Prize in 1971, dwarf variety of wheat responsive to fertilizer and irrigation was introduced . HYV of rice seeds were introduced from IRRI. High yielding varieties and hybrid of other cereal like Maize, Sorghum, Bajra also came at that time. As a result, Green Revolution ushered in India which made India self sufficient in food production.
Table 1: Progress in food grains production (mt) in India
Total Food Grains
It is reported that during 2016-2017 the total food grain production has reached to 271.8 mt.
Integrated revolution in West Bengal
It is clear from the discussion mentioned above that the first green revolution had quite good impact on the crop production. Yield of Rice, Potato , Jute , Vegetable, Flowers, Fruits, Fish, Eggs etc increased to have all round development and stable economic growth in the state. The food deficit state of WB become self-sufficient in food grains production.
The state was deficient in food grains production after partition. The GR that occurred in the North- western part of India also slowly impacted other parts of the country. West Bengal was not an exception. West Bengal has a special position among the states of Eastern India. Geographically it is uniquely positioned . The North part of the state toughs the mighty Himalaya while the southern parts toughs the Indian ocean . The northern district Darjeeling enjoyed cold weather while the southern district like East Midnapur and south 24 Parganas enjoyed the cyclone and flood. Its soil and water are affected by salt while Darjeeling has the acid soil which grows acid loving crop like tea.
The Holi river Ganga flows through the states. Kolkata , the Capital city of the state is situated on the bank of the river Ganga which is also known as the Hoogly river. The city has produced 4 Nobel Laurates namely Rabindra Nath Tagore, Sir C V Raman, Mother Teresa , and Prof A Sen. In addition, Mother Teresa won saint hood which is rarely bestowered and Bharat Ratna
It has six agro-climatic zones and 21 districts . Agriculturally it is first rice,jute , inland fish, vegetables, sesame production. It produces very good quality tea and oranges which are known as Darjeeling orange and tea.
Rice is the main crop of the state. It is grown in the three main season which are known Aus ,Aman and boro rice. West Bengal has become self sufficient in rice production. The yield of Boro rice is very high but the aus and aman yields are low. It ranks first in total rice production.(Table 2) Rice price is low. So there is no incentive to farmers to grow rice.
Table 2 Area, Production and Productivity of Major rice growing states.(2014-15)
Jute, the golden fibre is very import commercial crop of WB. It provides job to millions of people. Its price fluctuation creates a serious problem to farmers. If price is higher this year, the next year, the area under jute increases. The price of the jute falls.
Table 3 Area, production and Yield of Jute (2014-15) of Major Jute growing states.
Potato is very important vegetable crop of the state. It ranks second in the country. UP is the number I in potato production. Potato price fluctuation is also serious problem. This year potato price is low. It was a set back for the farmers.
West Bengal ranks first in vegetable production(Table 4) Varieties of vegetable is grown in the state. These are brijal, cabbage, cauliflower, bracauli , Gourds of various size and shape are grown in the state.
Table 4 : Area, Production and Yield of Vegetables in major vegetables growing states (2014-15)
Mango, Babana, papaya. lichi, coconut,aracanut etc is impotatnt. There is visible change in cropping. Because of labour problems , many farmers are opting for orchard.
Demand for flowers for puja and other festival, birth day party, marriage is increasing very fast. The State exports flowers of certain types.
Fish culture and its associated activities like hatchery, has become cottage industry in the state It has provides job to rural youth. Some of them have become quite rich by doing fishery business.
About 1500 crops is the turn over of poultry. Maize growing got impetus because of poultry industry. It has also helped farm youth to have self employment opportunities.
Table 5: Growth in Different Farm Sectors from 1950-51 till date
Times of increase in production
West Bengal has made a very good progress in various agricultural field of activities. This has given a real boost to the economy of the state. Practically no beggars are visible . Small and marginal farmers dominates in the state. Didi making helps the farm women a good amount money. A cafeteria of activities provides gainful employment to the rural people. Second green revolution is not relevant in the state because very good progress in food grain production has already taken place. Integrated revolution consisting of food grain production,horticulture,dairy,poultry,goatary , fishery etc has to be encouraged.