General Information :
• It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m • The leaves aromatic dark green in color• Flowers small white in color which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed.
Native to India and widely cultivated in all parts of India.
Habitat : Grown mainly in semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas.
Soil : A adapted to a wide range of soil types but does well in well drained clay or clay loam without prolonged water logging
Soil pH : high as 8.5.
Altitude :500 m to 1600 m (MSL)
Rainfall :Up to 1000 mm
Temperature : 12 - 40°C
Terrain : Plains and gentle slopes
Tree Characteristics :
- Drought tolerant and sensitive to frost.
Habit : Evergreen tree
- Regenerate naturally by coppice.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Seedlings can be easily propagated cuttings and seed also.
Seed collection and Storage :
• Ripped fruits are collected during June-August. • Fruits are depulped and dried in sun.• Seed rate 1200-1800 / Kg.• Seeds lose viability on storage. • Germination capacity 35 – 90%• Plant percent varies from 56-96%.
- No pretreatment is necessary.
Nursery Technique :
• The seed is directly sown in the polybags in April - May• Polythene bag with filled with sandy loam soil and FYM• Germination takes place within 10 - 15 days. • Regular watering and weeding should be ensured• Seedlings fit for planting out in 12 month.
Plantation technique :
• The field is ploughed 3-4 times to get a fine tilth. • Before last ploughing well decomposed FYM is applied @ 20 t/ha. • Pit size of 30 cm3 is dug one to two months before planting at a spacing of 1.2 to 1.5 m.
Care & Disease Control :
• Immediately after planting the pits are irrigated. • On the third day the second irrigation is given and then the irrigation is given once in a week.• Plantation should be weed free.
- Immediately after planting and then irrigation is given once in a week.
Recommended Harvest :
- Throughout the year.
At the end of first year 250-400 kg of leaves/ha can be harvested.• In II year : Once in 4 months every time 1800 kg/ha which would work out to 5400 kg/ha/year• III year : Yield 5400 kg/ha• IV year : 2500 kg/ha once in 3 months which would work out to 10,000 kg/ha/year• V year onward : 5000 kg/ha once in 3 months which work out to 20,000 kg/ha/year
First year intercrop like pulses
Major uses :
Leaves are mainly used for human food.
Other uses :
Fodder: Leaves are mainly used for human food and not to any great extent for livestock, but branches are occasionally lopped for feeding camels and cattle. Apiculture: Its silviculture, involving regeneration by cuttings, coppicing and pollarding, keeps flowering on and off most parts of the year. This provides nectar to honey bees for a long period.
Market details :
• Approximately Rs.10000 to Rs.12000/ ton