|Common cultural practices:|
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Deep summer ploughing to control juveniles and adults of nematodes, and resting stages of insect pests.
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around cumin crop as a guard/barrier crop
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
• Follow crop rotation
|Nutrients||• Soil is brought to fi ne tilth by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or desi plough. Stubbles of previous crops should be collected and removed from the field. Clods should be broken and field should be leveled with the help of plank.|
• Beds of 4 m x 3 m size with provision of irrigation channels should be prepared before sowing of seeds to facilitate proper irrigation and intercultural operations.
• Incorporate 6-8 t FYM/acre in soil, 2-3 weeks before sowing.
|Weeds||• Soil solarization during summer at the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize weeds menace in the field.|
|Soil borne pathogens, nematodes and resting stages of insect pests||Cultural control:|
• Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing which will help in reducing the soil borne pests.
• Apply organic amendment i.e. mustard, castor or neem cake 8-10 qts/acre
|Common cultural practices:|
• Use resistant/tolerant varieties.
• Select healthy, certified, and weed seed free seeds
|Nutrients||• Apply 15 Kg nitrogen (N) and 15 Kg phosphorus (P) at the time of sowing as basal dose. Another, 15 Kg N should be applied as topdressing one month after germination of seeds.|
• In zinc deficient areas, apply zinc sulphate @ 8 Kg/acre.
|Weeds||• Sowing/transplanting should be done in lines to facilitate hoeing and weeding operations during vegetative stage.|
• Adopt recommended agronomic practices like timely sowing, proper spacing irrigation etc. to obtain the healthy plant stand.
|Common cultural practices:|
• Collect and destroy crop debris
• Judicious use of fertilizers
• Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop
• Avoid water logging
• Avoid any stress to the crop as much as possible
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts
• Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages of the crop
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erect bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
|Nutrients||• Apply second half of N (6Kg /acre) as top dressing at 30 days after germination of the seed.|
|Weeds||• The crop should be kept free from weeds for initial 20 to 40 days for proper growth and development of plants.|
• Generally hand tool weeding/ hoeing at 20 and 40 days after sowing are required to keep the weeds under check
• Apply oxadiargyl 6% EC @ 24-30 ml/acre in 200 l of water at 15-20 days after germination of seeds to control Cyperus iria, Cyperus diff ormis, Eclipta alba, Ludwigia quadrifoliata, Chenopodium album, Rumex sp, Melilotus indica, Asphodelus tenuifolius
|Alternaria blight||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Spray aureofungin 46.15% w/v. SP @ 0.02% in 300 l of water, second spray after 30 days of interval or copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1.0 Kg/ acre in 300- 400 l of water or difenoconazole 25% EC @ 0.05% in 200 l of water, second spray after 15 days of interval or mancozeb 75%WP @ 0.6- 0.8 Kg/ acre in 200 l of water or zineb 75% WP @ 0.6- 0.8 Kg/ acre in 200 l of water
|Wilt||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
|Powdery mildew||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Spray aureofungin 46.15%w/v. SP @ 0.02% in 300 l water, second spray after 30 of interval or difenoconazole 25% EC @ 0.05% in 200 l water, second spray after 15 days of interval or sulphur 40% WP @ 1.4 Kg/ acre in 400 l of water or sulphur 80% WG @ 0.75-1.0 Kg/ acre in 300-400 l of water or sulphur 85% DP @ 6-8 Kg/acre or dinocap 48% EC @ 120 ml/acre in 300 l of water
|Aphid, Jassid**||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Spray the pressurized water on the crop.
• Apply fish oil rosin soap or NSKE (3%), neem oil (2%) or tobacco decoction (0.05%).
|Thrips||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Apply fish oil rosin soap or NSKE (3%), neemoil (2%) or tobacco decoction (0.05%).
|Tobacco caterpillar**||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Ecological engineering by growing of ovipositional trap crops such as castor.
|Cutworm**||• See the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
• Deep summer ploughing of fields during summer months in the plains and during autumn in the hills.
• Attracting cutworm larvae using rice bran – heaps of rice bran should be placed in several places in the late afternoon. Larvae can be removed from the rice bran on the next day and destroyed.
• Flood field prior to planting- where/whenever possible farmers can consider temporarily flooding fields, particularly on severely infested fields
|Nutrients||• Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.|
|Weeds||• Remove left over weeds before shedding of the seeds to prevent further spread of weeds|
|Insect-pest & diseases||• Same as in vegetative stage|
|Cigarette beetle**||Mechanical control:|
• Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone,
• Store grains in gunny bags with moisture proof lining
• Use commercially available cigarette beetle traps with synthetic serricornin
|Drugstore Beetle**||Mechanical control:|
• Use commercially available traps and lures with the drugstore beetle sex pheromone, stegobinone (2,3-dihydro-2,3,5-trimethy l-6-(1-methyl-2oxobutyl) -4H-pyran-4-one)
• Use sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone, stegobinone, for monitoring adult beetles
|Note: Pesticides dosages and spray fluid volume are based on high volume sprayer|
*Apply Trichoderma viride/ harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed treatment and soil application (If commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
** Pests of regional significance