Cultivation Of Peas

By Punjab Agricultural University on 28 Jan 2016 | read


Climate and Soil

Pea is a cool weather loving plant. It can germinate even at 4-5' C and can tolerate frost. However, under severe continuous frost,its flowers and young pods are likely to be damaged. Optimum germination takes place at 20-25' C. At temperature of 30' C and above, the germinating or emerging seedlings get killed. The high temperature conditions prevailing at the time of planting results in the build up of wilt and stem fly complex which results in considerable losses in yield. Hence pea attain an ideal growth and development in areas where there is a slow transition from cool to warm weather. It can be grown on all types of soils but well drained fertile loamy soils are best for the crop. Peas do best in soils having pH 6.0 to 7.5.

Improved Varieties

Early Maturing

Matar Ageta-7 (2014) : The plants are vigorous with 15-18 well filled pods having 7-9 grains per pod. The pods are of medium length(9.57 cm), slightly curved from tip and are borne singly or in doubles.Its shelling out turn is 48 per cent. It is an early maturing variety which gives first picking in 65-70 days after sowing. Average green pod yield is 32 q/acre.

Matar Ageta-6 (1989) : Its plants are dwarf (40 cm), erect,vigorous and green. It can tolerate high temperature and can be sown early in the season. First picking is possible after 7 weeks of sowing. Each plant bears 12-15 pods. One or two pods are borne per bunch. Each pod contains up to 6 grains and shelling out turn is 44.6 per cent. Grains have high protein and dry matter content. On drying, per cent seeds are light green, smooth with slight dimples.This variety gives 50 per cent of the total production in the first picking. Its green pod yield is 24 q/acre.

Arkel (1985): Arkel is an early maturing variety and takes about 60-65 days from sowing to marketable green pod stage. It is suitable for sowing in the first week of October under the irrigated conditions.Plants are dwarf (30-45 cm). Pods are borne both in double and single and are attractive, dark green, well filled, 8-10 cm long and each contains 7 to 8 dark green grains with a shelling percentage of 40. Dry seeds are light green and wrinkled. It is good for dehydration.Its green pod yield is 18 to 20 q/acre and seed yield is 3.5 q/ acre.

Main Season

Punjab 89 (2007) : The plants of this variety are medium dwarf,vigorous, having more number of well filled pods (28-30 per plant).The pods borne in doubles and are dark green, long, very attractive having 9-10 grains per pod. It takes about 85-90 days for first picking.Shelled peas are very sweet and the shelling out turn is more than 55 per cent. Average green pod yield is 60 q/acre.

Mithi Phali (1994): It is an edible podded variety and its shelling is not required. Plants are tall (140 cm) with green foliage. The fir sticking takes place 90 days after sowing and subsequent picking sat 15 days interval. Pods are light green and 12-13 cm long. Its consumable yield is double than that of standard shelled pea varieties.It is rich in protein and total sugar. Average green pod yield is 47 q/acre.

Agronomic Practices

Sowing and Seed Rate : Since the incidence of wilt in September is very high, some what late sowing from mid-October to mid-November give the best crop in the plains. Seed rate is 45 kg for early maturing varieties and 30 kg for main season varieties per acre.Line x Plant spacing should be 30 x 7.5 cm for early and 30 x 10 cm for main season varieties.The sowing of pea can also be done with Seed-cum- Fertilizer pea drill on ridges which are 60 cm wide. This drill sows two rows of pea which are 25 cm apart on each ridge. This drill can sow one acre per hour.

Inoculation : In areas where pea crop has not been sown earlier,it is advisable to treat the seed with bacterial culture (Rhizobiumleguminosarum ) to ensure nodule formation and quick growth. It increases the yield and quality of pods. The culture is available in the Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University,Ludhiana. One acre culture packet should be mixed with half liter of water. Rub the mixture thoroughly on seed to give a fine covering of the culture to every seed. Thereafter, spread the seed in shade for drying and plant it immediately afterwards.

Manures and Fertilizers

Apply 8 tonnes of farmyard manure, 20 kg of N (45 kg Urea) and25 kg P2O5 (155 kg Superphosphate) per acre before sowing.

Weed Control : The field should be kept free from weeds by giving two hoeing after four and eight weeks of germinationrespectively. For chemical weed control use Stomp 30 EC(pendimethalin) @1.0 litre per acre or Afalon 50 WP (linuron) @500g per acre as pre-emergence i.e. within 2 days of sowing. Dissolve the herbicide in 150-200 liters of water and spray uniformly over the entire field. Application of these herbicides control many of the annual broad leaved and grass weeds, including Phalaris minor.

Irrigation :

Seed should be sown in proper soil moisture condition. First irrigation should be given after 15 days of sowing.Next irrigation should be given at flowering and then at fruit set if necessary. Pea can be grown as rain fed crop with limited irrigation.The total number of irrigation required are 3-4 depending upon the soil type and weather conditions.

Harvesting :

Harvest the crop at the proper edible maturity and do not allow the pods to over mature which impairs its quality. Harvesting is to be completed in number of pickings depending upon the maturity group of peas.

Seed Production :

For seed production, seed rate and spacing are same as for table crop. Sow seed crop in second fortnight of November. An isolation distance of 5 meters is kept between two varieties grown for seed production.