Climate and Soil
It is a winter season crop but can be grown throughout the year.It can also tolerate frost. It can be grown almost on all soils but sandy loam with pH 7.0 is the best for its cultivation.
Punjab Green (1990) : The plants are semi-erect, foliage is shining dark green, thick, long, sweet, succulent and free from sourness. There is mild purple pigmentation on stem. It is ready for first cutting after 30 days of sowing and yields on an average 125 q/acre. It is slow bolter. It has low oxalic acid which is desirable trait in greens.
Sowing Time and Seed Rate : Winter crop is sown during September-October and spring/summer crop from mid-February to April. Normally palak is grown almost throughout the year. For wintercrop, use 4-6 kg. and for summer crop 10-15 kg. of seed per acre.
Spacing : Seed should be sown 3-4 cm. deep in rows at 20 cm apart.
Manures and Fertilizers
Apply 10 tonnes of farmyard manure along with 35 kg of N (75 kg of Urea)and 12 kg of P2O5 (75 kg of Superphosphate) per acre to harvest a good crop. Apply whole of farm yard manure, P2O5 and half N before sowing and the remaining half N may be applied in two splits after each cutting followed by irrigation.
Irrigation : First irrigation should be given immediately after sowing. Subsequent irrigations should be given at an interval of 4-6 days during summer and 10-12 days during winter.
The crop will be ready for harvest in about 3-4 weeks after sowing.Subsequent cutting should be done at an interval of 20 to 25 days depending upon the variety and season. During summer only one harvesting should be taken.
A minimum isolation distance of 1000 meter should be maintained all around palak seed field from other varieties. For seed production,crop should be sown in second fortnight of October. To get maximum seed yield cutting should be done 30 days after sowing and then left for seed production. Row to row and plant to plant distance should be maintained at 50 cm x 30 cm. Skipping of one row after every five rows is very essential for field inspection. The minimum three field inspections should be made for getting the true to type seed. The first inspection should be made at vegetative phase, second at bolting stage and third before harvesting of the crop. Any off type and diseased plants should be removed. The plants showing variation in leaf characters as well as early and late bolters should be removed.The crop should be harvested when most of the late ripening seed stalks turn brown. After harvesting, the crop should left in the field for curing and drying for about a week before the seed threshing.