Climate and Soil
Garlic is a cool season crop and it succeeds best in mild season without extremes of heat and cold. Short days are favorable for bulb formation. Sandy loam and silt loam soils are best suited for garlic.
PG 17 (2005) : Its plants have dark green leaves. The Bulbs are attractive and white. The Cloves are bold, white and vary from 25-30 per bulb. It takes 165-170 days for maturity. Its average yield is 50 q/acre.
Sowing Time: The optimum time of sowing is from last week of September to the first week of October.
Seed Rate: For sowing an acre, 225-250 kg of healthy cloves are needed.
Method of Sowing: For kitchen gardening and small scale sowing, dibble the cloves. In case of commercial planting, sow garlicky ‘kera’ method. Put the cloves at 3 to 5 cm depth. Sowing of garlic can also be done by manually operated garlic planter. Depth of planting with the machine should be maintained at about one inch. It covers about 0.5 acres per day with the help of 2-3 persons.
Spacing: Close planting at 15 cm between rows and 7.5 cm between plants in the row is most conducive.
Manures and Fertilizers
Twenty tonnes of farmyard manure/ compost per acre may be applied about 10 days before sowing. In addition, apply 50 kg N (110kg. Urea) and 25 kg P2O5 (155 kg Single Superphosphate). WholeP2O5 should be applied before sowing. Apply N in three equal splits,30, 45 and 60 days after sowing.
Irrigation: First irrigation should be given immediately after planting. Subsequent irrigation should be given at 10-15 days interval depending upon soil type and weather conditions. The total number of irrigation required are 10-12.
Weed Control: The weeds in garlic can be controlled with the application of Stomp 30 EC (pendimethalin) or Basalin 45 EC(fluchloralin) @ 1 liter per acre followed by one weeding at 90-100 days of planting. Stomp 30 EC should be applied within a day after planting and Basalin should be incorporated 3-4 days before planting of cloves. Alternatively, apply Goal 23.5 EC (oxyflorfen) @425 ml per acre as early post-emergence i.e. within 7 days after planting using 200 litre of water followed by one hand weeding after 90-100 days of planting for effective weed control.
Harvesting and Storage
At maturity the tops dry. Stop irrigation at least a fortnight before harvesting to prolong storage life of bulbs. After harvesting cure the plants in a dry and shady place, for 5 to 7 days. Tie in small bundles and store in a well ventilated dry place. Sort out bulbs with dried cloves during storage.