Cultivation Of Cucumber

By Punjab Agricultural University on 26 Jan 2016

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Climate and Soil

Cucumber is especially a warm season crop. This is very sensitive to frost. Excess humidity promotes diseases like powdery mildew and downy mildew. The optimum temperature for cucumber production is 26.40C. Seed of cucumber germinates well at 250C. A well drained loamy soil is preferred for cucumber production.

Improved Variety

Punjab Naveen (2008) : The plants have dark green leaves,having uniform cylindrical fruit shape and attractive light green color with smooth surface. The fruits are bitter free, having soft seeds at edible maturity and are very crispy. It is better in quality having high dry matter and vitamin C. It takes 68 days from the transplanting to harvesting. The variety is excellent in taste, appearance, color, size and texture and its average yield is 70 q/acre.

Agronomic Practices

Sowing time : February-March.

Seed Rate : Use 1.0 kg of seed per acre.

Spacing : The seeds are sown on both sides of the beds of width 2.5 meter at a distance of 60 cm. between seed. Sow two seeds at one place to ensure good stand.

Low tunnel technology : To get early yield of cucumber, practice of low tunnel is helpful in raising crop in early summer. It helps to protect plants against cold from December to February. The beds of 2.5 meter width are prepared in the month of December. The sowing is done on both sides of beds at a distance of 45 cm.Before sowing the seeds, flexible iron rods of 2 meter length shaped into arches/hoops are fixed manually at the distance of 2 meter so as to have the height of 45-60 cm. It will cover the paired rows on the beds. Cover the hoops with transparent plastic sheet of 100 gauge thickness. Burry these sheets on both sides of the beds.Remove these sheets when temperature rises outside in the month of February

Manure and Fertilizers

It requires 40 kg N (90 kg of Urea), 20 kg P2O5 (125 kg of Single Super phosphate) and 20 kg K2O (35 kg Muriate of Potash). Apply 1/3 N along with whole P2O5 and K2O at the time of sowing in two parallel bands 15 cm away from the bed mark. Apply rest of the N during the early period of vine growth i.e. one month of sowing.

Irrigation : Sowing is done on the pre-irrigated furrows on top of the ridge on both sides of the beds. subsequently irrigation is applied second or third day of sowing. The crop is irrigated at 4-6 days interval. Total number of irrigation would be 10-12.

Harvesting

Fruits are picked when tender and young when seeds inside the fruit are still soft. Fruits must be picked before change in color i.e.from green to yellow.

Seed Production

For seed production the fruits should be picked when brown in color. A minimum of 1000 meter isolation distance from different varieties of cucumber should be kept to produce true to type seed.Three field inspections should be done, first before flowering, second at flowering and fruiting and third before harvesting of the seed crop.All off type and diseased plants should be rouged off. For extraction of seed, the pulp of the fruit is taken out in fresh water. It is kept for one to two days to allow the seed to separate from the pulp. The seed is rubbed with hand. Heavy seeds settle down in water and are retained.