Climate and Soil
Chilli performs well under humid climate. It is photo-insensitiveand day length neither affects flowering nor fruit setting. A frost freeperiod of about 130-150 days with temperature range of 15-35'C isoptimum for chilli production. Generally chilli will not set fruit whennight temperature is above 30'C. Temperature beyond 40'C result inpoor fruit set and increased fruit drop. This is further agrevated if therelative humidity is low and is accompanied by dry winds.Chilli can be grown on a wide range of soils but well drainedloamy soil rich in organic matter is best suited for its cultivation. Itcan not withstand water-logged conditions for more than a day.Although chilli can be grown on soils with a pH range of 5.0 to 8.0but it performs best at a soil pH of about 6.5.
CH-3 (2002) : This hybrid has been developed by crossing MS-12 x S-2530. It is an early maturing hybrid with dark green foliageand pendent fruits. The fruits are long (8.2 cm). The colour of immaturefruit is dark green and turns dark red at maturity. The fruits are mildin pungency with 0.51% capsaicin content, high dry matter (22.5%)and good Vit. ‘C’ (109.95 mg /100g ) content. The deep red colouredfruits make it specially suitable for making chilli paste for exportpurposes. The average yield of red ripe fruits is 110 q/acre.
CH-1 (1992) : It is a hybrid between MS12 x LLS. Its plants gainone metre height and more branching. Plants continue bearing fruitsfor a long time. Fruits are light green when immature and attain deepred colour at maturity. Fruits are of medium size (6.62 cm long) andweigh 2.7 g each. This hybrid is tolerant to viral and fungal diseases.Its fruits are highly suitable for drying and used as salad. Yield of redripe chilli is 100 q/acre. Its fruits are used in processing industry.Fruits on an average have capsaicin content of 0.80%.
Punjab Sindhuri (2013) : Plants are dark green, compact andmedium tall. It is an early maturing variety and first picking (red fruits) is possible 75 days after transplanting. Fruits are long (7.14cm),thick skinned, dark green when immature and deep red when mature.Fruits are pungent (1% capsaicin content) and rich in Vitamin Ccontent (155 mg/100g). Average yield of red ripe fruits is 76 q/acre. Itis suitable for fresh market and distant transportation.
Punjab Tej (2013) : Plants are light green, spreading and mediumtall. It is an early maturing variety and first picking (red fruits) ispossible after 75 days of transplanting. Fruits are long (6.80 cm),thin skinned, light green when immature and deep red when mature.Fruits are highly pungent (1.32% capsaicin content) and rich inVitamin C (115 mg/100g). Average yield of red ripe fruits is 56 q/acre.It is suitable for processing/powder making.
Punjab Surkh (1995) : Plants are medium tall, leaves dark green,fruits long (7cm), green when immature and dark red on maturity. Itis a dual purpose variety which makes it suitable for salad and drying.It is tolerant to fruit rot and moderately resistant to mosaic virus . It isan early bearing variety which yields 80 q/acre of red ripe fruits.Fruits have capsaicin content of 0.80% on dry weight basis.
Punjab Guchhedar (1995) : It is a selection from materialintroduced from Indonesia. Plants are tall. Fruits are small (5cm),erect and borne in clusters of 5-16. Fruits have destalking habitwhich leave the stalk while picking. It is tolerant to fruit rot, highlyresistant to mosaic and tolerant to leaf curl virus. Fruits are latebearing and yield 60 q/acre. Fruits are rich in capsaicin (0.98%) anddeep red in colour.
Sowing Time : The seed is sown in nursery during end Octoberto mid November. Transplanting is generally done in February – March.
Seed Rate : Seed rate is 200 g per acre when sown in thenursery. Sow nursery in one marla (25m2) area to transplant oneacre.
Nursery Raising : Seed of chilli is sown on raised beds. Thebeds should be 1.25 metre wide with height of 15 cm. The soil isloosened with the help of khurpa or spade. Use well decomposedfarmyard manure and incorporate well into the soil. Then soil is sterlized with formaldehyde (1.5-2.0%). For this Formalin ofcommercial grade is taken and 15-20 ml of Formalin is added in onelitre of water. This solution is added in the beds at the rate of 4-5litres m2. so that it saturates upper 6 inches of the soil. The bedsare then covered with polythene for a period of 48-72 hours. Afterwardthe covers are removed and soil is loosened so that fumes of thechemicals escape into air and do not hinder the germination of theseed. After removal of the cover, the sowing of seed is done after 3-4 days. Sowing should be done in rows drawn widthwise at a distanceof 5 cm.To ensure successful growing of healthy seedlings from costlyhybrid seed of chilli, nursery should be grown under polyhouse (size24’ x 13’ x 6’) made of UV stabilized low density polyethylene film of200 microns (800 guage) thickness.
Spacing : Thick and stout seedlings perform better than tallseedlings and should be planted on ridges at 75 cm apart with plantto plant spacing of 45 cm. In case of mechanized farming the widerspacing can also be done to facilitate weed control by the protectedapplication of non selective herbicides between the rows.
Manures and Fertilizers
Apply well–rotten farmyard manure 10-15 tonnes/acre. Therecommended doses of fertilizers are 25 kg of N (55 kg of Urea) and12 kg of P2O5 (75 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 12 kg of K2O (20kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre. Whole P2O5 and K2O together with1/2 N should be drilled at transplanting and the remaining N shouldbe top dressed after first picking. Apply 30 kg N (65 kg urea) per acreto hybrid chilli.
Growth Regulator : Due to high temperature in May-June dropping of flowers take place. Two foliar sprays of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 10 day interval @4g, 45 and 55 days after transplanting to increases the green and red ripe fruit yield of chilli. Dissolve 4g NAA in 10-15 ml of ethyl alcohol and make the volume one liter. At the time of spray use this one liter in 100 liters ofwater.
1. Furrow Irrigation : First irrigation should be given just after transplanting. Subsequent irrigation should be given at 7-10 days intervals. Total number of irrigation required are 15-16. For saving of irrigation water, irrigate the crop in alternate furrow without affecting the crop productivity. With the use of paddy straw mulch @ 25 quintals per acre, the number of irrigation can be reduced to 9.
2. Drip Irrigation : Drip irrigation in chilli results not only increase in yield but also save 46% of water as compared to conventional method of irrigation. Under this system irrigation should be applied at an interval of two days. While irrigating with drip irrigation, transplant two rows of chilli on 80cm wide bed with row to row distance of 60 cm and plant to plant distance of 45 cm. Provide 40 cm space between the two beds. The chilli crop should be irrigated with one lateral pipe per bed having drippers spaced at 30cm and discharge of 2.2 liters per hour as per the following schedule. If discharge rate is less than 2.2 liters per hour, time of irrigation may be adjusted proportionally by the formula.2.2 x Time of irrigation Discharge of dropper Fertilization saves 20% fertilizer. Apply 7.9 kg Urea, 3.2 kg Mono Ammonium Phosphate and 3.2 kg Muriate of Potash (white) per acre during first month of the transplanted crop in seven equal doses with every second irrigation (four days interval). The remaining amount of fertilizer 31.4 kg of Urea, 12.8 kg of Mono Ammonium Phosphate and 12.8 kg of Muriate of Potash (white) per acre should be applied in equal doses during the rest of crop season in 21 equal doses with every second irrigation.
For dry powder chilli should be allowed to turn red. Six or seven pickings will be required. More pickings are possible for harvesting of green chillies. Dry the red ripe chillies in the sunshine.
Chilli is an often crops pollinated crop so minimum isolation distance of 400 meter between two varieties of chilli and sweet pepper should be maintained. A seed crop should be inspected at different stages of maturity to ensure the genetic purity. The first inspection should be done before flowering and off type/extra early plants should be removed. The second inspection should be conducted at full bloom and fruiting stage and the plants which do not conform to the varietal purity such as fruit shape, color, position of the fruit, flower color,plant spread and leaf characteristics like leaf color and shape etc.should be removed. The third inspection should be done just before fruit picking and only true to type plants are retained for seed harvest.Red ripe fruits are harvested and dried under sun. The seeds are extracted manually on small scale. However on a large scale, the seed can be extracted with PAU Axial - Flow Vegetable Seed Extraction Machine.