Cultivation Of Carrot

By Punjab Agricultural University on 29 Jan 2016 | read
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Climate and Soil

Carrot requires a relatively long growing season than the other root crops. The optimum temperature is 7.2.-23.90C for germination and 18.3-23.9'C for growth. The best root color develops at 15-20'C. Temperature higher than 30'C, particularly in later stages of development, induces undesirable strong flavor and coarseness in the roots. Temperate types need low temperature of 5-8' C for 40-60 days before flowering to break dormancy.Carrot needs a deep, loose loamy soil for best root development.Heavy soils check root development and promote forking. A soil pHof 6.5 is desirable for obtaining higher yield of better quality roots.

Improved Varieties

Punjab Carrot Red (2014) : This is a tropical variety and its roots mature in about 85-90 days after sowing. Its leaves are dark green and average plant height is 65 cm. Roots are dark red in color,27 cm long and 3.40 cm in diameter. This variety has an excellent quality characters. Roots have high juice content (515 ml/kg of roots),sweet (TSS 9.2%, sugar content 8.04%), rich in -carotene (8.44mg/100g) and dry matter content (11%). Average root yield is 230 q/acre.

Punjab Black Beauty (2013) : It is a tropical variety and roots attain edible maturity after 90-95 days of sowing. Leaves are dark green and petioles are purple in color. Roots are purple-black, 26 cm long and 3.20 cm in diameter. Roots have ability to stay in the field over a fortnight after reaching edible maturity. This variety has high nutraceutical values and excellent quality characters. It is richin anthocyanins (182 mg/100g) and phenols (73 mg/100g) which protect us from various forms of cancers. It has high juice content(580 ml/kg), calcium (50mg/100g), iron (1.10mg/100g), TSS (7.5 percent) and dry matter (11 per cent). Fresh carrots are suitable for salad, juice, pickle and kanji. Average root yield is 196 q/acre.

PC-34 (2005) : It takes on an average 90 days to mature after sowing. The leaves are dark green and the average plant height is 62 cm. The roots are red in color. The average length of root is 25 cm with a small core i.e. 0.95 cm. The root diameter is about 3.15 cm.The dry matter is 13.3 per cent and juice yield is 480 ml/kg. The TSSis 8.8 per cent, total sugars 5.81 g/100g, reducing sugars 2.17 g/100g and alcohol insoluble solids are 60.8 g/100g. The -carotene content is 8.86 mg/100g. Its average yield is 204 q/acre.

Agronomic Practices

Sowing and Seed Rate : For desi varieties of carrot, August September is the best time of sowing. European types should be sown in October-November. A seed rate of 4 to 5 kg. for carrot insufficient for one acre.

Method of Sowing : For small scale, spacing of 45 cm between ridges and 7.5 cm between plants is kept. The plant spacing is maintained by thinning at the time of true leaf formation. Thinning is very important for producing superior quality roots.For large scale, tractor operated inclined plate planter can be used for direct planting of carrot seeds on beds at 67.5 cm spacing.The machine plants 4 rows on each bed with 10 cm spacing between rows and 8 cm between plants. Moreover, there is no need of thinning.

Manures and Fertilizers

Apply 15 tonnes of farmyard manure, 25 kg. of N (55 kg of Urea),12 kg. of P205 (75 kg. of Single Superphosphate) and 30 kg. of K20(50 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre. Apply all fertilizers at sowing.In the absence of potash, root colour development is very poor. Always apply well rotten farmyard manure.

Weed Control: Carrot grows slowly in the beginning and cannot compete with weeds. Removal of weeds is necessary especially in the early stages of growth. Apply Goal 23.5 EC (oxyfluorfen) @200ml/acre as pre-emergence i.e. with in two days of sowing. Dissolvethe herbicides in 200 liters of water which provides effective control of annual weeds.

Irrigation: First irrigation should be given immediately after sowing of seed and total of 3-4 irrigation are required. Excessive irrigation result in miss happen roots, poor color development and numerous hair growth.

Weeding and Earthing up : One weeding followed by earthing up about 4-5 weeks after sowing should be done.

Harvesting

Carrots are ready for harvesting in about 90-100 days after sowing depending upon the variety. Carrots can be harvested when roots have developed marketable size and attractive deep red/orange/black color.

Processing

The fermentation process of Low Alcholic Naturally Carbonated(LANC) beverage from carrot and amla with yeast Clavisporalusitaniae has been optimized. The beverage can be prepared at small and large scale with shelf life of 3 months. This technology is useful for reducing the carrot glut in the market, thus making the availability of nutrients in the form of effervescent beverage for long period.

Seed Production

Follow the same practices as for table crop for raising roots.Roots raised in one acre are sufficient to plant four acres of seed crop. Transplant stecklings at 45 x 30 cm in the second fortnight of December. Apply 30 kg. N (65 kg. Urea) and 8 kg. P205 (50 kg.Superphosphate) per acre. Apply whole of P2O5 and half of N before transplanting and the rest half of the N after 30 days of transplanting.

 

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