Cultivation Of Bitter Gourd

By Punjab Agricultural University on 26 Jan 2016

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Climate and Soil

Though it has a wide range of adaptability, yet it thrives best in warm humid regions. It cannot tolerate frost. Though it can be grownon all types of soils, yet well drained loam soil rich in organic matteris best suited for its cultivation. For getting early crop, sandy orsandy loam soils are preferred but they should be manured well andgood amount of chemical fertilizers should be added in the soil.

Improved Varieties

Punjab Kareli-1 (2009) : Leaves are green, smooth and serrated.Vines are long. Its fruits are long thin, green and ridged. It takes 66days for first fruit harvest. One fruit weighs about 50g and averageyield is 70 q/acre.Punjab –14 (1985): It has small vines. Fruit weighs about 35gand is light green. Suitable for sowing during spring and rainy seasons.Average yield is about 50 q/acre.

Agronomic Practices

Sowing Time: 1. February-March 2. June-July

Seed Rate: Use 2.0 kg. of seed per acre.

Spacing: Sowing should be done on both sides of 1.5m wide beds keeping plant to plant distance of 45 cm.

Manures and Fertilizers

Apply 10-15 tonnes farmyard manure 10-15 days before sowing and also apply 40 kg of N(90 kg of Urea), 20 kg of P2O5 (125 kg of Single Super phosphate) and 20 kg of K2O (35 kg of Muriate of Potash)per acre. Whole P2O5 and K2O along with one third of N should be applied in two parallel bands 45 cm apart and a channel should be prepared in between the fertilizer bands before sowing of seed. The remaining N should be applied one month after sowing.

Irrigation:

First irrigation should be given after sowing. During summer season, crop may be irrigated after 6-7 days whereas during rainy season only when needed. Total number of irrigation would be8-9.

Harvesting

The crop will be ready for harvesting in about 55-60 days after sowing depending upon variety and season. The picking should bed one at 2-3 days interval.

Seed Production

For seed production, the crop is grown just like market crop. To produce pure seed, genetic purity of the variety must be maintained and off-type plants must be removed. The rouging should be done thrice i.e. at vegetative phase, at flowering stage and at fruiting stage.Isolation distance of 1000 meter should be kept between different varieties. Keep one honey bee colony per acre to produce good seed yield. When the color of the fruits turn dark yellow to orange,they should be harvested. The seed should be separated from fruits and pulp and should be cleaned and dried in shade.