Climate and Soil
It is a warm season crop and requires rains ranging from 120-150 mm per annum. An assured irrigation is a pre requisite for the raising of successful crop.Arvi can be cultivated in varied type of soils but it thrives best in sandy loam and loamy soils containing sufficient organic matter.Soil lacking in optimum fertility and moisture will result in low yield.The soils with poor drainage will produce corms of low quality. The land should be prepared thoroughly by 2-3 ploughings and planking.Keep the field free from weeds and stubble.
Punjab Arvi-1 (2009) : The plants are tall, leaves are green,large and obliquely erect. Petiole is long and sheathe ring at the base. The corms are long and medium thick. The corm color is brown and inner flesh is creamy. It takes 175 days for maturity. The average yield is 90 q/acre.
Sowing and Seed Rate : 300-400 kg of medium sized healthy corms are sufficient to plant one acre. The sowing of arvi can bed one in first fortnight of February under Punjab conditions.
Method of Sowing : The corms are sown 6 to 7.5 cm deep by keeping 60x15 or 45x20 cm distance between rows.
Manures and Fertilizers
Arvi is a heavy feeder and requires 10-15 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure which should be added in the field before sowing.In addition, 40 kg of N (90 kg of Urea), 20 kg P2O5 (125 kgSuperphosphate) and 20 kg of K2O (35 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre should be applied. 1/2 N and whole of P2O5 and K2O should be added at the time of sowing while remaining 1/2 N should be applied 35-45 days after sowing at the time of hoeing, weeding and earthing up.
Irrigation : Arvi requires regular irrigation for uniform sprouting,therefore, irrigate the field immediately after sowing and keep the field wet till the completion of germination. Irrigate the field at 3-4 days interval during summer and as and when required, during rainy season.
Hoeing : Control weeds by giving one or two hoeing and earthing up should be done after each hoeing.
The crop becomes ready for harvesting 175-200 days after sowing when the leaves start becoming yellow, which is the sign of maturity.The corms from early harvest are comparatively soft and are suitable for table purpose but can not be stored for long. The moisture in the field should be sufficient at the time of harvesting for easy lifting of corms which can be done by spades or other hand tools. The corms should be cleaned after harvesting and separate the primary corms from the other corms.
The secondary corms which have been separated from the primary ones are used as seed which are stored. The seed corms should be stored at cool and dry place to avoid rotting. The seed corms can be stored in the pits or in the cold store.
The insects which attack seed corms can be controlled by using 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC per acre.