Amla is highly nutritive and popularly known as ‘Amrit phal’. It is very rich in vitamin C, pectin and minerals. Fruit is valued high among indigenous medicines in India. It is the main ingredients in Chawanprash and one of the three ingredients in Triphla. Amla has agreat potential due to its high medicinal and nutritive values and more productivity even on marginal lands.
Climate and Soil : It is a hardy tree and can be successfully grown in variable agro-climatic and soil conditions. The mature tree can tolerate temperature as high as 46'C. However, the young plants need protection from frost during winter. It is a potential crop for degraded lands and the marginal soils having soil pH of 6.0 to 9.5.
Balwant (2011) : It is chance seedling developed from cultivar Banarasi. Tree semi-tall with semi spreading growth habit and dense foliage. Fruit is flattened round and moderate in size. Fruit skin is rough, yellowish green with pink tinge. Flesh is slightly fibrous, whitish green, soft, juicy and highly astringent. Stone is moderate in size and nearly rectangular in shape. It is earliest variety and matures in middle of November. Its average yield is 121 Kg per tree.
Neelum (2011) : It is seedling selection from open pollinated strain of cultivar Francis. Tree is tall with semi-spreading growth habit and dense foliage. Fruit skin smooth, semi translucent and yellowish green. Flesh is almost fibreless and soft. Stone is medium in size and oval round in shape. It is a mid season variety and mature sin end November. Its average yield is 121 Kg per tree.
Kanchan (2011) : It is a chance seedling from cultivar Chakaiya. Tree is tall with upright growth habit, sparse foliage. Fruit is flattened oblong in shape and small to medium in size. Flesh is fibrous, hard and ideally suited for processing. Stone is small and round. It is late in maturity and matures in mid December. Its average yield is 111 Kg per tree.
Propagation : Amla is propagated by patch budding during June September.The fruits of desi Amla should be collected during Jan. –Feb. and seeds should be sown in first fortnight of March.
Planting : Amla is planted at 7.5x7.5 m during February- March and August- September. To get good yield, plants of at least two varieties should be planted together.
Training and Pruning : The tree should be trained to single stem up to the height of 75 cm. Then select 4 to 6 well spaced main branches on all directions around the trunk. Remove the dead,diseased, broken, crossing branches and suckers from root stocks.
Manures and Fertilizers : Apply 15-20 Kg per plant farmyard manure to young plants and 30-40 Kg per tree to mature plants during July. In addition, apply 50 g nitrogen (110 g Urea) to each one year old plant. Increase this dose of N by 50g each year up to 10 years and apply 500 g of nitrogen (1100 g Urea) to mature plants thereafter.
Irrigation : Young plantation shout be irrigated at 10-15 days intervals during summer. In bearing plantation, irrigation should be avoided during flowering.
Harvesting : Fruit should be harvested at full maturity. Budded Amla plants starts bearing after 4-5 years of age and the trees starts commercial yield at the age of 10 years.