|1. Adipattam (Jun-July)||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Namakkal,|
|Tirunelveli, Dindigul, Dharmapuri,||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, TNAU Sunflower Hybrid CO 2|
|Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur|
|2. Karthigaipattam(Oct- Nov)|
|Cuddalore, Villupuram, Virudhunagar, Sivagangai||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Dindigul,||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, TNAU Sunflower Hybrid CO 2|
|Theni, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur,|
|1. Adipattam (June-July)|
|Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Namakkal,Tirunelveli,||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Tiruchirapalli,||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, KBSH 44, DRSH 1, TNAU|
|Perambalur, Karur||Sunflower Hybrid CO 2|
|2. Karthigaipattam (Oct - Nov)|
|Cuddalore, Villupuram, Virudhunagar,||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Sivagangai , Ramanathapuram, Madurai,||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, KBSH 44, DRSH 1, TNAU Sunflower Hybrid CO 2|
|Dindigul,Theni, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur,|
|3. Margazhipattam (Dec-Jan)|
|Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Erode,||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni,||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, KBSH 44, DRSH1, TNAU Sunflower Hybrid CO 2|
|4. Chithiraipattam (April - May)||Variety||:||TNAUSUF 7 (CO 4), COSFV 5|
|Coimbatore, Erode, Dharmapuri, Salem,|
|Namakkal, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur||Hybrid||:||KBSH 1, KBSH 44, DRSH1, TNAU Sunflower Hyrbid CO 2|
DESCRIPTION OF SUNFLOWER VARIETIES
TNAU Sunflower Hybrid CO2
1. FIELD PREPARATION
Plough once with tractor or twice with iron-plough or three to four times with country-plough till all the clods are broken and a fine tilth is obtained.
2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
- Spread 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith evenly on the field before the last ploughing and incorporate in the soil by working a country plough.
- Apply NPK fertilizers basally as per soil test recommendations. If soil test recommendations are not available, follow the blanket NPK/ha for both irrigated and rainfed crops.
|Season||Blanket recommendation of Nutrients (kg/ha)|
Biofertilizer : Soil application - Mix 10 packets (2000 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 10 packets(2000 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 20 packets of Azophos(4000 g/ha) with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg soil and apply before sowing.
3. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
- Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture formulated by the Department of Agriculture, Tamil Nadu with enough sand to make total quantity of 50 kg/ha.
- (or) For rainfed sunflower apply TNAU MN mixture @ 7.5 kg ha -1 as enriched FYM for variety and 10 kg ha-1 as enriched FYM for hybrid and for Irrigated sunflower apply TNAU MN mixture @ 12.5 kg ha-1 as enriched FYM for variety and 15 kg ha-1 as enriched FYM for hybrid (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).
- Apply the mixture over the furrows and top two thirds of the ridges before sowing.
- Do not incorporate the mixture in the soil.
- To overcome manganese deficiency, foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 on 30, 40 and 50th day / after sowing.
- For zinc deficiency, apply 25 kg/ha ZnSO4 as basal, or 0.5% ZnSO4 spray on 30, 40 and 50th day after sowing.
4. FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS
FORMING RIDGES AND FURROWS
5. SEED RATE
|Varieties||7 kg/ha||6 kg/ha|
|Hybrids||5 kg/ha||4 kg/ha|
6. SEED TREATMENT
Hybrids: 60 cm x 30cm
Varieties: 45 cm x 30cm
Thin out seedlings leaving only one healthy and vigorous
seedling in each hole on the 10th day of sowing.
9. WEED MANAGEMENT
10. WATER MANAGEMENT
Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by an irrigation on 4 - 5th day and later at intervals of 7 to 8 days according to soil and climatic conditions, seeding, flowering and seed development stage (ie) two weeks before and after flowering.
11. SPRAYING NAA
- Spray the hormone Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 20 ppm concentration (280 g NAA in 625 litres of water per ha) on the 30th and 60th day of sowing.
- Use a high volume sprayer and give a thorough coverage of the entire plant.
- Do not use brackish water.
12. Sulphur fertilization
Apply sulphur @ 20 kg/ha through ammonium sulphate or single super phosphate Or apply gypsum@ 200kg/ha as basal
13. Boron application
Spray borax @ 0.2 % (2g/l of water) to capitulum at ray floret opening stage to improve seed set and seed filling.
14. IMPROVING SEED SET BY MECHANICAL MEANS
- During the mid flowering phase, improve pollination by : i. Mild rubbing of the capitulum with the hand covered with soft cloth or ii. Rubbing two flowers face to face gently.
- The mid-flowering phase are: 58 to 60 days of planting for long duration varieties, 45 to 48 days of planting for short duration varieties.
- Do this operation in the morning hours between 9.0 and 11.00 am when pollen shedding is high.
- Keeping bee hives at the rate of 5/ha improves seed setting.
15. JUDGE WHEN TO HARVEST
Observe the bracts on the backside of the capitula. When they turn lemon yellow, the heads harden and the crop is ready for harvest.
Bird damage: Use of reflective ribbons scares the birds effectively and thus prevents loss of grain.
Capitullum damaged by bird
i. Cut the capitula (flower heads) only
ii. Thresh and clean
a. Immediately after harvest, dry the heads in the sun for 3 days.
b. Spread the heads in thin layer and give turning once in 3 hours.
NOTE: Do not heap or store the heads before drying properly as mould fungi will develop and spoil the grain quality.
c. Thresh using a mechanical thresher, or beat with a stick and separate the grains.
d. Winnow and clean the seeds
e. Dry the seeds again in the sun for another two days
f. Store in gunny bags
15. Crop Protection
- Pests of Sun flower
- Diseases of Sun flower