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Chlorotic streak disease
This disease is a new threat to cardamom cultivation particularly in Kerala and Karnataka. The disease has the name ‘chlorotic streak’ because of its characteristic symptom. The virus causing this disease is identified as a strain of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). The incidence of the disease is higher in plantations where either banana is grown nearby or banana had been the previous crop.
Mode of spread:
The disease is transmitted through infected suckers and also by aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa).
The symptoms induced by BBrMV on cardamom were distinct and easily distinguishable from the symptoms due to other viral diseases affecting cardamom.Continuous or discontinuous spindle shaped yellow or light green intravenous streaks along the veins and midrib of the leaf lamina. Later these streaks coalesce together and impart yellow or light green colour to the veins. Appearance of discontinuous spindle shaped mottling on pseudostem and petioles. In severe cases, tillering in infected clump is suppressed to a greater extent.
Management:Prompt inspection of plantation, detection and rouging of virus sources reduces re-infection from the diseased source. Use of healthy and virus-free planting materials. Raising of seedling and clonal nurseries in isolated sites. Complete destruction of infected volunteers from nursery as well as replanted areas. Periodic removal of older parts is effective in reducing the aphid population and the spread of viral diseases. Destroy the breeding sites of the vector by removing their natural host plants from the vicinity of plantation. Neem based products at 0.1% concentration significantly reduces settlement of aphids on the cardamom leaves and are lethal to the aphids at higher concentrations.
ReferenceC. N. Biju, A. I. Bhatt, Viral diseases of cardamom, Technical bulletin IISR- Cardamom Research Centre Appangala, 2012. V. A. Parthasarathy, K. Kandiannan, V.Srinivasan, Organic Spices, New India Publishing, 2008. V. A. Parthasarathy, A. I. Bhatt, Utpala Parthasarathy, Spice Crops, Today’s and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, 2008. Cardamom- Extension pamphlet, Indian Institute of Spices Research, 2012. Cultivation Practices for Cardamom, Spices Board India, 2009. Summary of Advancement Achieved in Research and Managemenr- Cardamom, Indian Institute of Spices Research, 2012. Kissan Kerala, Karshaka Information Systems and Networking. Kerala Agriculture University- Agri- Infotech portal.