Chilli is an important vegetable cum condiment. It is called Red pepper or hot pepper. A number of varieties are grown for vegetables, spices, condiments, sauce and pickles. Chillies are rich in Vitamins, especially in Vitamins A and C. it has many medicinal properties. Its paste is externally used as a rubefacient and as a local stimulant for the tonsils in tonsillits. India produces about 1.298 MMT of Chillies from an area of 0.806 Mha with an average productivity of 1611 Kg/ha
Varieties: K1, K2, CO1, CO2, CO3, CO4, PKM1, PKM2, PLR1, G4, G5, Pusa Jwala, Pant C1, Pant C2.
Soil and climate: It requires a deep fertile light loamy soil matter with a pH range of 6.5 - 7.5. A temperature range of 20 - 30oC would be ideal for hot pepper.
Soil sterilization: Treat the soil with formalin (commercial formulation 37%) at the rate of 20ml/lit of water and apply 2 lit/cu.ft. Then the medium should be covered with polyethylene sheet of 25 micron thickness for 14 to 36 hours and aerated for 15 days.
Quality Seedling Production: The seedlings are raised in a shade net house. Nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the seedlings production to cover 1 ha. The portrays of 98 cells (54 x 27cm) of 3.5 cm diameter and 0.8mm thickness is normally used and is ideal for chilli seedling production. Around 300 protrays are required for the production of 29,000 seedlings, which is required for one hectare at spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in a paired row system. Cocopeat is an artificial soil-less media, which is used for the production of healthy and vigorous vegetable seedling production. The sterilized coco peat @ 360 Kg / ha is mixed with 5 kg of neem cake along with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1 Kg. Approximately 1.2 Kg of the coco peat medium is filled in each protray.
Seed treatment: About 200 g of hybrid chilli seeds is required to produce seedlings for 1 ha. The seeds are treated with Pseudomanas fluorescens @ 10 g / Kg of seeds, which is a biofungicide. The seeds are mixed with Azospirillum @ 200 g / Kg and are shade dried for half an hour. About 50 g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 200g chilli seeds.
Sowing: Season of sowing is January – February; June – July; September – October. Sowing of chilli seeds in portrays is done @ 1 seed per cell. The seeds are covered with coco peat. Watering is done by rose can everyday (twice/day) up to seed germination. Panchakavya spray @ 3 % is done at 15th day of sowing (30 ml/lt). 19:19:19 + MN 0.5% (5g/l) solution is drenched using rose can or micro nutrient spray of 0.5% is done at 18 days after sowing. The chilli seedlings of 35 days old are ready for transplanting.
Planting system and population maintenance: One month before sowing land preparation will be started. The main field is ploughed 4 times with Chisel and disc each at one time and cultivator twice. FYM @ 25t/ha, 75% of the total recommended dose of super phosphate, Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 2 kg / ha along with FYM 50 Kg and Neem cake @ 100 Kg, Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5 Kg/ha along with 50 Kg of FYM are applied before last ploughing. Raised beds of 120 cm width are formed at an interval of 30 cm and the laterals are placed at the centre of each bed.
Planting: 35 - 40 days old seedlings are transplanted. Planting is done at a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in the paired row system, using marked ropers at 45 cm spacing. 35 - 40 days old seedlings are dipped in 05% solution of Pseudomonas fluorescens for 30 minutes and are transplanted in the main field.
Water requirement of crop:
|Germination to early growth||0.50||Lpd|
|Initial period0.75 Lpd||1.25||Lpd|
Drip Irrigation System: Installation of drip system is done with main, sub-main pipes and the inline laterals are placed at an interval of 1.5 meter. (5 feet). The drippers at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
Fertigation Techniques: For chilli F1 hybrid, a dose of 120: 80: 80: Kg of NPK / ha is applied throughout the cropping period. The splits are approximately once in every three days through fertigation. Recommended dose: 120: 80: 80 Kg/ha100% of TRD: 120: 20: 80 Kg/ha*
|Stage||Crop stage & No of application||Duration in days||% Requirement|
|1.||Transplanting to plant establishment||10||10.00||20.00||10.00|
|2.||Flower initiation to flowering stage||30||30.00||60.00||20.00|
|3.||Flowering to fruit set||30||30.00||-||20.00|
|4.||Alternate day from picking||80||30.00||20.00||50.00|
|*75% of RD of Phosphorous applied as Super phosphate|
Intercultivation: Foliar spraying with Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% at 15 days interval is given as biofungicide. Micro nutrient mixture @ 500 g / ha (0.1%) is sprayed at 40th, 80th and 120th days after planting. Mulching with 25-micron thick black polythene sheet is recommended to control weeds.
Plant protection measures:
Fruit borer: Setup pheramone traps for Helicoverpa armigera / Spodoptera litura at 12 number /ha. Spray Bacillus thuringiensis at 2 g/lit. Provide poison bait with carbaryl 1.25 kg, ricebran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ha. Spray carbaryl 50 WP 3 g/lit or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 3 ml/lit or quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit.
Thrips: Spray dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit or dust quinalphos 1.5 D at 20 kg/ha thrice at fortnightly intervals.
Aphids: Acephate 75 sp 1 g/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit or phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit.
Diseases: Damping off: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Stagnation of water should be avoided. Drench with copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.
Leaf spot: Spray mancozeb 2 g/lit or copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lt.
Powdery mildew: Spray wettable sulphur 3g/lt or carbendazim 1g/lt, 3sprays at 15days interval.
Dieback & fruit rot: Spray Mancozeb 2g/lt or copper oxychloride 2.5g/lt thrice at 15days interval.
Chilli mosaic: Planting 2 rows of maize or sorghum for every 5 rows of chilli crop against wind direction. Spray recommendations given for aphids may be adopted for controlling the vector.
Harvesting and Post harvest management: Harvesting of fully mature green chilli fruit is carried out either at four days interval from 70 days after planting continued till 150 days. Grading is done based on the size of the fruits and is packed in the crates. The small sized, curved and misshapen fruits are separated.
Yield: Yield varies from 25-29 t/ha.
Storage and Packing: Chilli should be stored at 45¼ to 55¼° F (7¼ to 13¼°C) and at a relative humidity of 90 to 95%. Under tropical conditions, 200 - gauge low and high density polyethylene films are suitable for packing of whole chilli in units of 250 g each. Such packs can be stored at a cool, dark, dry place for about a year.
|Plant spacing||60 X 45cm|
|Drip System (Rs)||86,800|
|Cost of cultivation(Rs)||44,550|
|Expected life of the drip system||10 Years|
|Expected yield||20-30 t/ha|
|Cost benefit ratio||1:5.22|
For more information, kindly Contact:
Principal Investigator, Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC)
Department of Soil & Water Conservation Engg.Agrl.Engg.College & Res.Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003,
Phone: 0422-5511258, Office Email: email@example.com