Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea Var. Capitata) Brassicaceae


Varieties

Hills

Quisto.

Plains

Golden Acre, Maha Rani.

Soil

It is commonly cultivated in cool moist climate.  It is grown as a winter crop in plains.  It is grown in varied types of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay.  It requires a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 for higher production.

Season of sowing

Hills

The crop can be planted during January – February, July – August and September – October.

Plains

August – November is suitable season.

Seed rate

650 g/ha of seeds is required.

Nursery

About 100 sq.m nursery area is required for raising plants for one hectare area. Apply FYM at 300 kg, and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of Sodium molybdate and 100 g of Borax. Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised seed beds after drenching it with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/lit).  Transplant 40 - 45 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with ‘club root disease’.

Protected nursery
Raise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with a slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, the portrays are placed.

Protray 
The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cabbage seedling production. Around 600 protrays are required for the production of 28.333 seedlings required for one hectare at spacing of 60x45x45 cm in three row planting

Growing medium
The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.

Seed treatment 
 250 g of hybrid cabbage seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 50C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cabbage seeds.

Sowing
Sow the seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat and keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and covered with polythene sheet for 5 days or till germination starts. After 5 days when the seeds are germinated arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 + MN @ 0.5 % (5g/lit) solution using rose can or spray micro nutrient of 0.5 % at 18 days after sowing. The cabbage seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 days

Preparation of field

Bring the soil to a fine tilth.  Pits should be taken up at a spacing of 40 cm either way in Hills.  Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart in plains.

Spacing

Hills        : 40 x 40 cm 
Plains    : 45 x 30 cm 
Hybrid : 60x 45x45cm in paired row system

Planting

30 – 40 days old seedlings are selected for planting. Hardening of seedlings is done by withholding irrigation 4 - 6 days prior to planting.

Irrigation

Provide continuous supply of moisture.

Drip irrigation

Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers

Hills

Apply 30 t/ha FYM, 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha on 30 to 45 days after planting. 

Plains

Apply 20 t/ha of FYM, 50 kg N, 125 kg P and 25 kg K/ha along with 2 kg Azospirillum as basal and 50 kg N after one month of planting and earth up.

Fertigation

Fertigation requirement for F1 hybrid: 200: 125:150 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days throughout the cropping period.

Fertigation schedule

Recommended Dose: 200:125:150 kg/ha

StageCrop stageDuration in daysFertilizer gradeTotal fertilizer (kg/ha)Nutrient supplied% requirement
NPKNPK
1Transplanting to plant establishment1019:19:19 + MN 
13-0-45 
Urea
32.87 
19.42 
24.36
6.25 
2.52 
11.21
6.25 

-
6.25 
8.74 
-
10.005.0010.00
Subtotal19.986.2514.99   
2Head initiation stage3012-61-0 
13-0-45 
Urea
20.37 
133.20 
130.74
2.44 
17.32 
60.14
12.50 

-

59.94 
-
30.0010.0030.00
Subtotal79.9012.5059.54   
3Head initiation to development stage3019:19:19+
MN 
13-0.45 
Urea
32.87 
86.02 
92.37
6.25 
11.18 
42.49
6.25 

-
6.25 
38.71 
-
20.005.0020.00
Subtotal59.926.2544.96   
4Harvesting stage3512-61-0 
13-0-45 
Urea
10.18 
66.60 
65.38
1.22 
8.66 
30.07
6.25 

-

29.97 
-
40.005.0040.00
 Total duration105 Subtotal39.956.2529.97   
Total199.75 
(or) 
200.00
31.25149.85 
(or) 
150.00
10025100

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate in plains and rock phosphate in hills (589 kg/ha)

  1. 19:19:19 = 66 kg / ha 
  2. 13:0:45 = 305 kg / ha 
  3. 12:61:0 = 31 kg / ha 
  4. Urea = 313 kg / ha

After cultivation

Deep hoeing should be avoided, as the Cabbage roots are surface feeders.

Plant protection

Pests

Cut worms

Apply Chlorpyriphos 2 ml/lit in the collar region during evening hours for the control of common cutworm - Agrotis segetum.

Aphids

  • Install yellow sticky trap @12 no/ha to monitor “macropterous” adults (winged adult).
  • Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5 ml Teepol/lit or any one of the following insecticide.
InsecticideDose
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP (300 ppm)5.0 g/lit.
Dimethoate 30 % EC6.0 ml/10 lit.
Malathion 50 % EC1.5 ml/lit.
Phosalone 35 % EC1.5 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC1.0 ml/lit.

Diamond backmoth

  1. Grow mustard as intercrop as 20:1 ratio to attract diamond back moths for oviposition. Periodically spray the mustard crop with insecticide to avoid the dispersal of the larvae.
  2. Install pheromone traps at 12 Nos/ha.
  3. Spray Cartap hydrochloride 1 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2 g/lit at primordial stage (ETL 2 larvae/plant)
  4. Spray NSKE 5 % after primordial stage.
  5. Release parasite Diadegma semiclausum at 50,000/ha, 60 days after planting.

InsecticideDose
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP (300 ppm)5.0 g/lit.
Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki  5 % WP1.0 g/lit.
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC1.0 ml/10 lit.
Chlorfenapyr 10 % SC1.5 ml/lit.
Chlorpyrifos 20 % EC2.0 ml/lit.
Diafenthiuron 50 % WP8.0 g/10 lit.
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG4 g/10 lit.
Fipronil 5 % SC1.6 ml/lit.
Flubendiamide 20 WDG2.5 g/10 lit.
Flufenoxuron 10 % DC4 ml/10 lit.
Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC3.5 ml/10 lit.
Indoxacarb 15.8 % SC2.7 ml/10 lit.
Lufenuron 5.4 % EC1.2 ml/ lit.
Metaflumizone 22 % SC1.5 ml/lit.
Novaluron 10 % EC7.5 ml/10 lit.
Pyridalyl 10 % EC1.0 ml/lit.
Spinosad 2.5 % SC1.2 ml/lit.
Thiodicarb 75 % WP1.5 g/lit.
Trichlorofon 50 % EC1.0 ml/ lit.

Diseases

Club root

Biological control

Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting

Chemical control

Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years.

Leaf spots

Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit.

Leaf Blight

Leaf blight can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ litre. 

Ring spot

Ring spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Carbendzim 1 g/lit or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit.

Downy mildew

Downy mildew can be controlled by combined spraying of (Metalaxyl + Mancozeb) 2 g/lit 3 sprays at 10 days interval.

Black rot

Black rot can be controlled by dipping the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes. Two sprays with 2 g/lit Copper oxychloride + Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and head formation.

Yield

Hills       :  70 – 80 t/ha in 150 days.

Plains    :  25 – 35 t/ha in 120 days.

Market Information

Crop Growing districts:Nilgris, Krishnagiri, Theni, Erode
Major markets in Tamil Nadu:Mettupalayam, Ottanchathiram, Hosur and Dindigul
Grade Specification:Size and Weight