Black Gram Cultivation Practices

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 17 Dec 2018 | read
    09

BLACKGRAM ( Vigna mungo L.)

1. SEASON AND VARIETIES
 

District/SeasonVarieties
Adipattam (June-August)
All districts except Kanyakumari and Nilgiris
VBN (Bg) 4, VBN(Bg) 5, TNAU (Black gram) VBN 7
Puratasipattam (September-November)
Vellore, Tiruvannamalai Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Perambalur, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Pudukottai,, Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli.
VBN 3 (To avoid Yellow Mosaic Virus treat the seeds with Imidachlorphid @ 1 ml / kg seed) VBN(Bg) 4, VBN (Bg) 5, TNAU (Blackgram) VBN 6, TNAU (Blackgram) Co 6, APK 1

Markazhi – Thaipattam(Winter Irrigated) 
All districts except Kanyakumari and Nilgiris

VBN 3, VBN (Bg) 4, VBN (Bg) 5, TNAU (Blackgram) VBN 6, TNAU (Blackgram) Co 6, TMV 1
Rice fallows (January)
Thanjavur,Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Villupuram and Kanchipuram
ADT 3
Chithiraipattam (Summer Irrigated) 
Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruchirappalli, Perambalur, Thiruvallur, Kancheepuram
ADT 5
 

Image titleTNAU (Blackgram) Co 6

MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF BLACKGRAM VARIETIES

 

ParticularsT 9CO 5ADT 3VBN 1
ParentageSelection from Bareilly, U.PPureline selec tion from Musiri -Pureline selection from Tirunelveli localKM 1xH 76-1
Year of release1972198119811987
50% flowering (days)30 - 3535 - 4030 - 3530 - 35
Maturity duration (days)65 - 7070 - 7570 - 7560 - 65
Grain yield (kg/ha)    
Rainfed -740..700
Irrigated10001270-850
Rice fallows  720   
Height (cm)35 - 4030 - 355030 - 35
Clusters10 - 1210 to 1210 - 1512 – 13
Hairiness of podsGlabrousHairyHairyHairy
Colour of grainBlack & DullBlack & DullBlack & dullBlack
100 grain wt (g)4.05.73.65.1

 

ParticularsADT 5K 1VBN 2VBN 3VBN(Bg) 4
ParentageSelection from Kanpur varietyCO 3 x US 131Spontaneous mutantLBG 402 x LBG 17CO 4 x PDU 102
Year of release19881994199620002003
50% flowering (days)3240 - 4533 - 4035 -4035 – 40
Maturity duration (days)6270 - 7560 - 7065 – 7075 – 80
Grain yield (kg/ha) 
Rainfed
- 707750775780
Irrigated1323-1000825900
Rice fallows --  
Height (cm)20 - 2530 - 3525 - 3525 – 3540 – 45
Clusters13 - 1510 - 134 - 18 5 - 108 – 10
Hairiness of podsHairyHairyGlabrousHairy podsGlabrous
Colour of grainBlackDull blackBlack with green tingeDull blackBlack
100 grain wt (g)3.65.33.834.44.8

 

ParticularsVBN(Bg) 5TNAU (Blackgram)VBN 6TNAU (Blackgram)VBN 7

Parentage

Vamban 1 x UK 17Vamban 1 x Vigna mungosilvestrisVamban 3 x Vigno mungosilvestris
Year of release200720112012
Maturity duration (days)65-7065-7065-70
Grain yield (kg/ha)836850882
Rainfed
Irrigated820890981
Height (cm)3418.620
Hairiness of podsHairyHairyHairy
100 grain wt (g)4.03.8-4.03.8 – 4.0
Special featuresModerately resistant to Yellow MosaicResistant to Yellow Mosaic, synchronized pod maturityResistant to Yellow Mosaic, synchronized pod maturity

 

1. FIELD PREPARATION

  • Prepare the land to fine tilth and form beds and channels.
  • Amendments for soil surface crusting: To tide over the soil surface crusting apply lime at the rate of  2t /ha along with FYM at 12.5 t/ha or composted coirpith at 12.5 t/ha to get an additional yield of about 15 - 20%.

Land preparationImage title

SEED RATE

Quantity of seed required kg/ha

STRAIN       Pure crop     Mixed crop
T 9, CO 5, TMV 1, VBN 1, VBN 2, VBN 3, VBN (Bg) 4 ADT 5, TMV 12010
(Rice fallows) ADT 325..

Optimum plant population 3,25,000/ha

2. SEED TREATMENT

Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing (or) with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio control agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with Biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.

Note: Seed treatment will protect the seedlings from seed borne pathogens, root-rot and seedlings diseases.

Image title


3. SEED TREATMENT WITH BIOFERTILIZER

                Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Rhizobial culture CRU-7 + 3 packets (600 g/ha) of PGPR  and 3 packets(600 g/ha)  of Phosphobacteria developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out apply 10packets of Rhizobium (2000 g/ha) + 10 packets of PGPR (2000 g/ha) and 10 packets (2000 g)  of Phosphobacteria with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.

4. FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  • Apply fertilizers basally before sowing.Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg K2O +10 kg S*/haIrrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O + 20 kg S*/ha

*Note : Applied in the form of gypsum if Single Super Phospate is not applied as a source of phosphorus

  • Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition
  • Soil application of TNAU micronutrient mixture @ 5 kg/ha as Enriched FYM (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).

Foliar spray of 1% urea for yield improvement in black gram

For yield improvement through increasing the physiological, biochemical attributes, foliar spray of urea 1% on 30 and 45 days after sowing is recommended. For rice fallow pulses in Delta area, the present recommendation of foliar spray of 2% DAP may be continued.

Foliar spraying to mitigate moisture stress

Foliar spraying of 2% KCl + 100 ppm Boron during dry spell as mid season management practice in black gram during Rabi season is recommended to increase the yield over KCl spray alone .

Economizing the use of micronutrients through seed treatment for blackgram

Seed coating with biofertilizers and micronutrients viz., Zn, Mo & Co @ 4, 1, 0.5 g/kg of seed is recommended.

Nitrogen substitution by organic sources for pulses

50 per cent nitrogen can be substituted through organic source (850 kg of vermicompost per hectare). Lime application is recommended for pulses with soil pH less than 6.0.   

5. SOWING OF SEEDS

  1. For irrigated crop dibble the seeds adopting 30 x 10 cm cm spacing 
  2. For rainfed crop dibble the seeds adopting 25 cm x 10 cm spacing 

6. WATER MANAGEMENT

      Irrigate immediately after sowing, followed by life irrigation on the third day. Irrigate at intervals of 7to 10 days depending upon soil and climatic conditions. Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods when irrigation is a must. Avoid water stagnation at all stages. Apply KCl at 0.5 per cent as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is moisture stress.

Image title

Life irrigation on third day

7. SPRAYING OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR UREA,  NAA AND SALICYLIC ACID

a.     Foliar spray of Spray of NAA 40 mg/lt and Salicylic acid 100 mg/lt once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter 
b.     i) For rice fallow crops foliar spray of DAP 20 g/lt once at flowering and another at 15 days thereafter 
      ii) For irrigated and rainfed crops, foliar spray of DAP 20 g/litre or Urea 20 g/litre once at flowering 
          and another at 15 days thereafter.

c.     Foliar spray of salicylic acid 100 mg/litre once at preflowering and another at 15 days there after.

8. WEED MANAGEMENT

Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin 3.3 litres/ha under irrigated condition 2.5 litres/ha under rainfed condition on 3 days after sowing using Backpack/ Knapsack/Rocker sprayer fitted with flat fan nozzle using 500 litres of water for spraying one ha followed by one hand weeding at 20 DAS (or) EPOE application of quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha-1 and imazethapyr @ 50 g ai ha-1 on 15 – 20 DAS. If herbicides are not applied give two hand weedings on 15 and 30 days after sowing.

  1. For the irrigated blackgram PE isoprotwron @ 0.5 kg ha-1 followed by one hand weeding on 30 DAS.

9. Multi bloom technology

A special technology being practiced in Pattukottai block of Tanjore district for blackgram and greengram. The soil is alluvial and rich in organic matter and nutrients. The crop is sown during early summer (Jan.-Feb.) as  normal crop and fertilizer is applied as per the recommendation for irrigated crop. In addition to that, top dressing of Nitrogen is done with an extra dose of 25 to 30 kg through urea. Since pulses are indeterminate growth habit and continue to produce new flashes the top dressing will be done on 40-45 days after sowing. The crop complete its first flesh of matured pods during 60-65th day,   further their second new flesh within 20-25 days. Therefore two fleshes of pods can be harvested at a time within the duration of 100 days.

RICE-FALLOWS

VARIETIES AND SEED RATE

Quantity of seed required kg/ha
VarietiesSole cropMixed crop
CO 4, ADT 2, ADT 3, ADT 4, ADT 5, TMV 1
(Rice fallows)30..

1.TIME OF SOWING
Third week of January –Second week of February

2.SOWING OF SEEDS
               For relay cropping broadcast the seeds in the standing crop 5 to 10 days before the harvest of the paddy crop uniformly under optimum soil moisture conditions so that the seeds should get embedded in the waxy mire.For combined harvesting areas, broadcast the seeds before harvesting the paddy crop with machinery

3.  SPRAYING OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE , NAA AND SALICYLIC ACID

  • Foliar  Spray of NAA 40 mg/lt and Salicylic acid 100 mg/lt once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter 
  • Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/lt once at flowering and another at 15 days thereafter
  • Foliar spary of salicylic acid 100 mg/litre once at prefloweing in another and 15 days there after.

4. HARVESTING

  • Picking  the matured pods, drying and processing
  • Uprooting or cutting the whole plants ,heaping ,drying and processing

 Crop Protection

Pest of Blackgram

Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – are spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, laid singly

  • Larva - shows colour variation from greenish to brown. Green with dark brown grey lines laterally on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.

  • Pupa – brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris

  • Adult - light pale brownish yellow stout moth. Fore wing grey to pale brown with V shaped speck.Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin. 

EggImage title

LarvaImage title

PupaImage title

AdultImage title

Symptoms of damage 

  • Defoliation in early stages
  • Larva’s head alone thrust inside the pods and the rest of the body hanging out.
  • Pods with round holes

Management

  • ETL: 10% of affected pods
  • Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha
  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
    • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
    • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
    • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
    • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
    • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
    • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
    • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
    • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
    • Neem oil 2%
    • Phosalone 0.07%(Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray.
Spotted pod borer: Maruca testulalis

 Image title

Image title

Symptoms of damage 

  • Defoliation in early stages
  • Larva’s head alone thrust inside the pods and the rest of the body hanging out.
  • Pods with round holes

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Greenish white with brown head. It has two pairs of dark spots on the back of each segment
  • Adult - Forewings- light brown colour with white markings; Hindwings – white colour with brown markings at the lateral edge

Management

  • ETL: 3/plant
  • Phosalone 0.07% (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha)Note : When the activity of coccinellid predator (both grubs and adults) is seen, insecticide application should be avoided.
Spiny pod borer: Etiella zinckenella
Symptoms of damage 
  • Dropping of flowers and young pods
  • Older pods marked with a brown spot where a larvae has entered
  • Larval – greenish initially, turns pink before pupation.
  • It has 5 black spots on the prothorax
Identification of the pest

Adult

  • Brownish grey moth 
  • Prothorax – orange in colour
  • Fore wing - has a white stripe along the anterior margin

Image title

Management

  • Conserve natural enemies like Tetrastichus sp., Bracon hebetor, Phanerotoma sp. and P. hendecasisella.
  • ETL 10% affected parts
  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Early sowing, short duration varieties.
  • Avoid closer plant spacing.
  • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants
  • Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage).
  • Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D
  • Spray insecticide Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.
Blue butterfly: Lampides boeticus

Symptoms of damage Image title

  • Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes
  • Presence of slug like caterpillar.
  • Honey dew secretion with black ant movements

Identification of the pest

  • Larva – It is flat and slightly rounded; Pale green with a rough skin.
  • Adult - moth is greyish blue with prominent black spots in the hind wings and a long tail; Ventral side of wings with numerous stripes and brown spots

 

Management

Spray any one of the following insectcides (Spray fluid 500 l/ha)

  • Emamectin benzoate 5%SG 220 g/ha
  • Indoxacarb 15.8%SC 333 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
  • Neem oil 2%
Grass blue butterfly: Euchrysops cnejus

Symptoms of damageImage title

  • Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes and presence of slug like caterpillar.
  • Larval entry hole on the pod is plugged with excreta.

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - pale green or yellow with a red line and short black hairs on the body.
  • Adult - butterfly is blue, medium sized with 5 black spots in the hind wings and two black spots in the inner margin.

 

Management of pod borer complex

  • ETL 10% affected parts
  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Early sowing, short duration varieties.
  • Avoid closer plant spacing.
  • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants
  • Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage).
  • Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha. quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D
  • Spray insecticides like Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.
Bean Aphids: Aphis craccivora    

Symptoms of damage

  • Leaves, inflorescence stalk and young pods  covered with dark coloured aphids
  • Honey dew secretion with black ant movements

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs and Adult – dark coloured with cornicles in the abdomen

Management

Spray any one of the following insectcides (Spray fluid 500 l/ha)

  • Emamectin benzoate 5%SG 220 g/ha
  • Indoxacarb 15.8%SC 333 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
  • Neem oil 2%

SymptomImage title

Nymphs and AdultsImage title

Leaf hopper: Empoasca kerri

Symptoms of damageImage title

  • Leave mottled and yellowish in colour
  • Green colour insects found under surface of leaves

Identification of the pest

  • Adult – elongate, active, wedge shape, green insects

Management

Spray the infested crop with methyl-o- demeton 750 ml in 700 - 1000 L water per hectare

Pod bugs:  Riptortus pedestris

Symptoms of damageImage title

  • Pods with black spots
  • Shedding of green pods
  • Poorly filled pods with shriveled grains inside






Identification of the pest
Riptortus pedestris
  • Brownish black and hemispherical 
  • Nymphs – resemble dark brown ants



Management:
  • Dimethoate 30% EC 500ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25%EC 500ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 100-125 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 g/ha
Lab lab bug or Stink bug: Coptosoma cribraria

Symptoms of damageImage title

  • Cluster on the  plant  parts and suck the sap

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs and Adult - sub globular, oval and greenish shield bug.
  • It has a characteristic buggy odour
Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci

Symptoms of damageImage title

  • Pods with black spots
  • Shedding of green pods
  • Poorly filled pods with shriveled grains inside

Identification of the pest
Riptortus pedestris
  • Brownish black and hemispherical 
  • Nymphs – resemble dark brown ants


Management:
  • Dimethoate 30% EC 500ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25%EC 500ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 100-125 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 g/ha
Blister beetle: Mylabris phalerata

Symptoms of damage

  • The adult feeds voraciously on buds and flowers.

Image title

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs - are light yellowish in colour and cylindrical in shape.
  • Larvae - Young grubs are white in colour.
  • Adult – Elytra are black in colour with a round orange spot and two transverse wavy   orange bands across the wings.

Management

  • Manual collection or collection with insect net and killing of adults in kerosenized water appears to be the only possible solution.


Diseases of Blackgram

Anthracnose: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Symptom
  • Image titleThe fungus attacks all aerial part parts and at any stage of plant growth.
  • Symptoms are circular, black, sunken spots with dark center and bright red orange margins on leaves and pods.
  • In severe infections, the affected parts wither off.
  • Seedlings get blighted due to infection soon after seed germination.   
  • The pathogen survives on seed and plant debris
  • Disease spreads in the field through air-borne conidia.
  • The disease is more sever in cool and wet seasons.  

Management

  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim 2g/kg
  • Remove and destruct plant debris
  • Spray Mancozeb 2g/lit or Carbendazim 0.5g/lit.

Bacterial Leaf Blight: Xanthomonas phaseoli

Symptom
  • Image titleThe fungus attacks all aerial part parts and at any stage of plant growth.
  • Symptoms are circular, black, sunken spots with dark center and bright red orange margins on leaves and pods.
  • In severe infections, the affected parts wither off.
  • Seedlings get blighted due to infection soon after seed germination.   
  • The pathogen survives on seed and plant debris
  • Disease spreads in the field through air-borne conidia.
  • The disease is more sever in cool and wet seasons.  
  • Use disease free seed
  • Destruction of debris and stubbles.
  • Management
  • Soak the seeds in 500 ppm Streptocycline solution for 30 min. before sowing followed by two sprays of Streptocycline combined with 3 g of Copper Oxychloride per litre at an interval of 12 days is recommended.

Cercospora leaf spot: Cercospora canescens

Symptom
  • Image titleSpots produced are small, numerous in number with pale brown centre and reddish brown margin. Similar spots also occur on branches and pods.
  • Under favourable environmental conditions, severe leaf spotting and defoliation occurs at the time of flowering and pod formation.  
  • The fungus is seed-borne and also survives on plant debris in the soil.
  • High humidity favours disease development.    
  • Management
  • Spray Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1000g /ha at initiation of the disease and 10 days later. 

Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe polygoni

Symptom
  • Image titleWhite powdery patches appear on leaves and other green parts which later become dull coloured. These patches gradually increase in size and become circular covering the lowersurface also.
  • When the infection is severe, both the surfaces of the leaves are completely covered by whitish powdery growth. Severely affected parts get shriveled and distorted.
  • In severe infections, foliage becomes yellow causing premature defoliation. The disease also creates forced maturity of the infected plants which results in heavy yield losses.
  • The pathogen has a wide host range and survives in oidial form on various hosts in off-season.
  • Secondary spread is through air-borne oidia produced in the season.
  • Spray NSKE 5% or Neem oil 3% twice at 10 days interval from initial disease appearance.
  • Spray Eucalyptus leaf extract 10% at initiation of the disease and 10 days later.
  • Management
  • Spray Carbendazim 500 g or wettable sulphur 1500g/ha or Propiconazole 500 ml/ha at initiation of the disease and 10 days later 

Root Rot and Leaf Blight: Rhizoctonia solani

Symptom
  • Image titleThe pathogens cause seed decay, root rot, damping-off, seedling blight, stem canker and leaf blight in green gram.
  • The disease occurs commonly at podding stage.
  • In the initial stages, the fungus causes seed rot, seedling blight and root rot symptoms.
  • The affected leaves turn yellow in colour and brown irregular lesions appear on leaves.
  • On coalescence of such lesions, big blotches are formed and the affected leaves start drying prematurely.
  • Roots and basal portion of the stem become black in colour and the bark peels off easily.
  • The affected plants dry up gradually. When the tap root of the affected plant is split open, reddening of internal tissues is visible. The pathogen is soil-borne.
  • Management
  • Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg
  • Basal application of zinc sulphate 25 kg/ha
  • Basal application of neem cake @ 150 kg/ha
  • Soil application P. fluorescens or T. viride – 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.
  • Spot drenching of Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ lit

Rust: Uromyces phaseoli

Symptom
  • Image titleSpots produced are small, numerous in number with pale brown centre and reddish brown margin. Similar spots also occur on branches and pods.
  • Under favourable environmental conditions, severe leaf spotting and defoliation occurs at the time of flowering and pod formation.  
  • The fungus is seed-borne and also survives on plant debris in the soil.
  • High humidity favours disease development.
  • Management    
  • Spray Mancozeb 1000g or wettable sulphur 1500g /ha at initiation of the disease and 10 days later. 

Stem canker: Macrophomina phaseolina

Symptom
  • Image titleIn rice fallows, symptoms appear on 4 weeks old black gram crop as raised white cankers at the base of the stem.
  • These enlarge gradually and turn as raised brown streaks spreading upwards.
  • Plants are stunted and leaves dark green, mottled and reduced in size.
  • Normal leaves on the affected plants drop suddenly and dry.
  • Flowering and podding is greatly reduced.
  • Management
  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 12.5 tonnes/ha is helpful in reducing the incidence of the disease
  • Destroy the diseased plant debris by burning of burying in the soil.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.

Yellow Mosaic: Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus

Symptom
  • Image titleThe disease is more prevalent on black gram than green gram
  • Initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on young leaves.
  • The next trifoliate leaves emerging from the growing apex show irregular yellow and green patches alternating with each other.
  • Spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow.
  • Infected leaves also show necrotic symptoms.
  • Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods.
  • Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour.
  • Management
  • Growing resistant varieties such as VBN 4, VBN 6 and VBN 7
  • Seed treatment with Dimethoate (or) Imidacloprid @ 5 ml /kg
  • Installation of yellow sticky traps 12 nos/ha
  • Rogue out the infected plants up to 45 days
  • Foliar spray of notchi leaf extract 10% at 30 DAS or neem formulation 3 ml/lit
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha or thiamethoxam 75 WS 1g /3 lit and repeat after 15 days, if necessary.

Leaf Crinkle: Leaf Crinkle Virus

Symptom
  • Image titleThe earliest symptoms appear on youngest leaves as chlorosis around some lateral veins and its branches near the margin.
  • The leaves show curling of margin downwards.
  • Some of the leaves show twisting.
  • The veins show reddish brown discolouration on the under surface which also extends to the petiole.
  • Plants showing symptoms within 5 weeks after sowing invariably remain stunted and majority of  these die due to top necrosis within a week or two.
  • Plants infected in late stages of growth do not show severe curling and twisting of the leaves but show conspicuous venial chlorosis any where on the leaf lamina.  
  • The disease develops in the fields mainly through seed or rubbing of diseased leaves with the healthy ones.
  • Management
  • Growing resistant varieties such as VBN 4, VBN 6 and VBN 7
  • Seed treatment with Dimethoate (or) Imidacloprid @ 5 ml /kg
  • Installation of yellow sticky traps 12 nos/ha
  • Rogue out the infected plants up to 45 days
  • Foliar spray of notchi leaf extract 10% at 30 DAS or neem formulation 3 ml/lit
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha or thiamethoxam 75 WS 1g /3 lit and repeat after 15 days, if necessary.

Post Harvest Technology


Pulses constitute essential components of vegetarian diet. Pulses are major source of protein in Indian vegetarian diet. These are main source of protein providing most of the essential amino acids to a certain degree. Economically, pulses are cheapest source of protein. Pulses are Bengal gram, pigeon pea, black gram, green gram, lentil, etc. Pulses are mainly consumed in the form of dehusked split pulses, as these are rich in proteins. In vegetarian diet pulses are main source of protein.COMPOSITION :Green gram, red gram, bengal gram, horse gram, cluster bean, field bean, cow pea are some of the common types of pulses.In general, their protein content is high and is commonly more than twice that of cereal grains, usually constituting about 20 per cent of the dry weight of seeds. The protein content of some legumes like soyabean is as high as 40 per cent.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF PULSES

 Energy
Kcals
Moisture
g
Protein
g
Fat
g
Mineral
g
Carbohydrates  gFibre
g
Calcium
mg
Phosphorus
mg
Iron
mg
Bengal gram, whole360101753442023125
Bengal gram, dhal37210216311563315
Bengal gram, roasted36911225211583409
Black gram, dhal347112413111543854
Cow pea32313241334774149
Field bean, dry34710251311604333
Green gram, whole334102413441243264
Green gram dhal34810241311754054
Horse gram, whole321122203552873117
 Kherasi dhal345102812572903176
Lentil343122512591692937
Moth beans3301124135642022309
Peas green9373701164201391
Peas dry315162012564752987
Peas roasted340102312594813456
Rajmah34612231361      5    2604105
Redgram, dhal335132223581733043
Redgram tender116651011176571641
Soyabean43284319421424069010

Pulse seeds are also sources of other nutritionally important materials, such as vitamins and minerals.

Carbohydrates: Food pulses contain about 55-60 per cent of total carbohydrates including starch, soluble sugars, fibre and unavailable carbohydrates.

Minerals: Pulses are importantly sources of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium and phosphorus.

Vitamins: Pulses contain small amounts of carotene, the provitamin A.

TOXIC CONSTITUENTS OF PULSES : The seeds of pulses include both edible and inedible types. Even amongst the edible legumes toxic principles occur and their elimination is important in order to exploit them for edible purposes. Two thermoliable factors are implicated in toxic effects. Inhibitors of the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase haemagglutinins, which impede the absorption of the products of digestion in the gut. In addition, legumes also contain a goitrogen, a toxic saponin, cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids.

Elimination of Toxic Factors :  It has already been indicated that soaking, heating and fermentation can reduce or eliminate most of the toxic factors of the pulses. Correct application of heat in cooking pulses can eliminate most toxic factors without impairment of nutritional value. Cooking also contributes towards pulse digestibility. Heat causes the denaturation of the proteins responsible for trypsin inhibition, haemagglutination and the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides. The mode of application of heat is important. Autoclaving and soaking followed by heating are effective. Another way of eliminating toxic factors is by fermentation, which yields products more digestible and of higher nutritive value than the raw pulses.

PROCESSING

Processing: Processing of pulses is of primary importance in improving their nutritive value. The processing methods used are soaking, germination decortications, cooking and fermentation.

Soaking: Soaking in water is the first step in most methods of preparing pulses for consumption. As indicated above, soaking reduces the oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. Soaking also reduces the amount of phytic acid in pulses.

Germination: Germination improves the nutritive value of food pulses. The ascorbic acid content of pulses increases manifold after 48 hours germination. Germinated and sprouted pulses have been used to prevent and cure scurvy. The riboflavin, niacin, choline and biotin contents of all pulses increase during germination. The germination process reduces and/or eliminates most of the antinutritional and toxic factors in several pulses.

Decortication: A simple method is to soak the seeds for a short time in water; the husk takes up more water than the seeds and may be easily separated by rubbing while still moist. In the alternative, the soaked grains may be dried and the husk removed by pounding and winnowing. Roasting also renders the husk easier to separate. Roasted legumes like those of Bengal gram and peas are widely used in India.

Cooking: Cooking destroys the enzyme inhibitors and thus improve the nutritional quality of food pulses. Cooking also improves the palatability.

Fermentation: The processing of food pulses by fermentation increases their digestibility, palatability and nutritive value. Fermentation process improves the availability of essential amino acids and, thus, the nutritional quality of protein of the blend. In general, the nutritive value of the legume based fermented foods has been shown to be higher than their raw counterparts.

Pulse milling : Pulses are usually converted into Dhal by decutilating and splitting. Both dry and wet milling processes are employed. By and large carborundum emery rollers are used for dehusking and burr grinders for splitting. Decuticling is seldom complete in single pass requiring multiple passes, each pass producing 1.5 to 2% fines reducing recovery of dal.

Basic processes in dhal milling are cleaning, dehusking, splitting, separation and bagging. Major variation is involved with dehusking process only. Dhals like Arahar, urad, moong and lentil are difficult to dehusk as a result repeated operations by dehusking rollers are required. Rewetting and drying is done to loosen portions of husk sticking after repeated rolling. Linseed oil is used to impart shine or better appeal to the milled dal.

The removal of the outer husk and splitting the grain into two equal halves is known as milling of pulses. To facilitate dehusking and splitting of pulses alternate wetting and drying method is used. In India trading milling methods produce dehusked split pulses. Loosening of husk by conditioning is insufficient in traditional methods. To obtain complete dehusking of the grains a large number of abrasive force is applied in this case as a result high losses occur in the form of brokens and powder. Yield of split & pulses in traditional mills are only 65 to 75% due to the above losses compared to 82 to 85% potential yield.

Milling of Pulses : In India, there are two conventional pulses milling methods ; wet milling method  and dry milling method. The latter is more popular and used in commercial mills.Image title

Traditional dry milling method ('DHAL'  MILLING) : There is no common processing method for all types of pulses. However, some general operations of dry milling method such as cleaning and grading, rolling or pitting, oiling, moistening, drying and milling have been described in subsequent paragraphs.

Cleaning and grading : Pulses are cleaned from dust, chaff, grits, etc., and graded according to size by a reel type or rotating sieve type cleaner.

Pitting : The clean pulses are passed through an emery roller machine. In this unit, husk is cracked and scratched. This is to facilitate the subsequent oil penetration process for the loosening of husk. The clearance between the emery roller and cage (housing) gradually narrows from inlet to outlet. As the material is passed through the narrowing clearance mainly cracking and scratching of husk takes place by friction between pulses and emery. Some of the pulses are dehusked and split during this operations which are then separated by sieving.

Pretreatments with oil : The scratched or pitted pulses are passed through a screw conveyor and mixed with some edible oil like linseed oil (1.5 to 2.5 kg/tonne of pulses). Then they are kept on the floor for about 12 hours for diffusion of the oil.

Conditioning of pulses : Conditioning of pulses is done by alternate   wetting   and drying. After sun drying for a certain period, 3-5 per cent moisture is added to the pulse and tempered for about eight flours and again dried in the sun. Addition of moisture to the pulses can be accomplished by allowing water to drop from an overhead tank on the pulses being passed through a screw con­veyor. The whole process of alternate wetting and drying is continued for two to four days until all pulses are sufficiently conditioned. Pulses are finally dried to about 10 to 12 per cent moisture content.

Dehusking and Splitting : Emery rollers, known as Gota machine are used for the dehusking of conditioned pulses About 50 per cent pulses are dehusked in a single operation (in one pass). Dehusked pulses are split into two parts also, the husk is aspirated off and dehusked, split pulses are separated by sieving. The tail pulses and unsplit dehusked pulses are again conditioned and milled as above The whole process is repeated two to three times until the remaining- pulses are dehusked and split.

Polishing: Polish is given to the dehusked and split pulses by treating them with a small quantity of oil and / or water.Image title

Commercial milling of pulses by traditional methods

The traditional milling of pulses is divided into two heads, namely, dry milling and wet milling. But both the processes involved two basic steps : (i) Precon­ditioning of pulses by alternate wetting and sun drying for loosening husk and (ii) subsequent milling by dehusking and splitting of the grains into two cotyledons followed by aspira­tion and size separation using suitable machines.  100 per cent-dehusking and splitting of pulses are seldom achieved particularly in cases of certain pulses like Red gram, black gram and green gram. Of them Red gram is the most difficult pulses to dehusk and split. Only about 40 to 50 per cent Red gram grains are dehusked and split in the first pass of preconditioning and milling. As sun drying is practiced the traditional method is not only weather dependent but also it requires a large drying yard to match with the milling capacity. As a result it takes 3 to 7 days for complete processing of a batch of 20 to 30 tonnes of pulses into dhals. Moreover milling losses are also quite high in the traditional method of milling of pulses. 

In general, simple reciprocating or rotary sieve cleaners are used for cleaning while bucket elevators are used for elevating pulses.

Pitting or scratching of pulses is done in a roller machine. A worm mixer is used for oiling as well as watering of the pitted pulses.

Blowers are used for aspiration of husk and powder from the products of the disc sheller or roller machine. Split dhals are separated from the unhusked and husked whole pulses with the help of sieve type separators.
Sieves are also employed for grading of dhals.

In general, the raw pulses may contain 2 to 5 per cent impurities (foreign materials), some insect infested grains and extra moisture.   Though the clean pulses contain about 10-15 percent and 2-5 per cent germs, the yield of dhals commercial dhal mills varies   from  68-75   per  cent.    It may be noted that the average potential yields of common dhals vary from 85 to 89 per cent.  These milling losses in the commercial pulses mills can be attributed lo small brokens and fine powders found during scoring and simultaneous dehusking and splitting operations.

VALUE ADDITION

Value added Products from Pulses Roasting of Pulses Preparation of Papad Soyabean Milk TOFU (Soy Panner)
   Puffing of Soyabean Preparation of Khakara & Soy Chocolate Processing of soymilk paneer 
Instant Food Mix Dehydrated Paneer Mix Preparation of Pakoda Mix Preparation of Instant Adai Mix Preparation of instant vada mix
   Preparation of instant bajji mix Kuruma Powder Mix, Idli Podi, Paruppupodi  
Extruded Products    
Bakery Products


 

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