Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)
Co 1, MDU 1, COBgoH 1 (Hybrid), Arka Harit, Priya and Preethi are mainly cultivated.
Sandy loam soils rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5 is suited for bitter gourd cultivation. This crop requires a moderate warm temperature.
Planting is done on July and January.
Preparation of field
Plough the field to fine tilth and dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2 x 1.5 m spacing and form basins.
Sow the seeds (5 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or Carbendazim 10 g/kg of seeds and thin the seedlings to two/ pit after 15 days.
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week.
Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM per pit (20 t/ha) 100 g of NPK 6:12:12/pit as basal and 10 g of N/pit 30 days after sowing.Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing.
Quality seedling production
Bitter gourd is a direct sown vegetable but polythene bag nursery is more advantageous to get early marketing and to avoid more gap filling. Use 200 gauge poly bags of 10 cm diameter x 10 cm height for sowing the seeds. Transplant about 15 days old seedlings to the main field.
Fertigation Schedule- Bitter gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended dose: 200:100:100 kg/ha
|Stage||Crop stage||Duration in days||Fertilizer grade||Total Fertilizer (kg/ha)||Nutrient applied||% of requirement|
|10||19:19:19 + MN |
|4||Harvesting stage||45||19:19:19 + MN |
|Total duration||115 days||Subtotal||60.00||5.00||40.10|
*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha.
1. 19:19:19 = 53 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45 = 199kg/ha
3. 12:61:0 = 25 kg/ha
4. Urea = 351 kg/ha
Hoeing is done thrice to control weeds. Provide stakes to reach the pandal (2 m). Spray Ethrel 100 ppm (1 ml dissolved in 10 lit of water) four times from 15th day after sowing at weekly intervals.
Pests and diseases
Mites: Spray dicofol 18.5 % SC @ 2.5 ml per litre of water.
Aphid: Spray Imidachloprid @ 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triton X100, apsa etc., for better adhesion and coverage.
Beetles, fruit flies and caterpillars
Beetles, fruit flies and caterpillars can be controlled by spraying Malathion 50 EC 1ml/lit or Dimethoate 30 EC 1ml/lit or Methyl demeton 25 EC 1ml/lit.
Do not use DDT, copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic.
Powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying Dinocap 1ml/lit or Carbendazim 0.5 g/lit.
Downy mildew can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit twice at 10 days interval.
Varieties: 14 t/ha in 140 - 150 days.
Hybrids : 40 t/ha in 180 days
Crop Growing districts
|Coimbatore, Dindigul, Cuddalore, Thoothukudi, Tiruppur|
|Major markets in Tamil Nadu||Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu, Chennai |
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam Vegetable Market, Coimbatore
|Grade Specification||20-25 cm long green fruits with short neck and tubercles are preferred|