General Information :
- It is a small to moderate sized deciduous tree
- Bark is thin, smooth, darkish green.
- Flowers yellow or pinkish in color
- Fruits greyish brown in color containing 6-8 seeds in each pod.
- Indigenous to Western Ghats with a high rainfall.
- Strong light demander, drought resistant and intolerant of suppression.
Natural Regeneration :
- Regeneration from seed is generally good. It reproduces freely from coppice.
- Propagated by direct sowing and vegetative cuttings.
- The tree produces abundant seed annually.
- Pods are collected from the tree in months of January - February.
- Seeds are extracted after beating the pods and removing the husk.
- weighs 14000 seeds/kg
- Seeds can be stored for 2 years under ordinary conditions.
- No pre- treatment is desirable, as the untreated seeds give best results.
- Germination capacity 75 - 80 %
- The germinative capacity of seed from young coppice growth is lower than that from old trees.
- The seeds are sown in mother bed and two leaf stage seedlings are transferred to polybags.
- Germination percentage is 50-75 %.
- Planting out is carried out during July in 30 cm3 pits
- Under dry conditions, pit size of 60 cm3 with a spacing of 3x3 m
- Planting should be carried out after the commencement of monsoon
- Cattle proof fence is necessary for young seedlings that are browsed and damaged by cattle.
- Weeding and soil working should be done in first two years.
- For proper growth and survival, it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting.
- This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation.
- Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.
- 25-30 years.
- Approximately 150-200 tons/ha*
- Timber is locally used for house-building , post, beams, rafters, ploughs, agricultural implements, constructional work and carving
- It is also suitable for tool handles and mallet heads
- Leaves are good fodder for cattle.
- Leaves also used green manure of paddy crops.
Approximately Rs.3200 to Rs.3500/ton* *Subject to change according to market demands