General Information :
It is a small to moderate sized deciduous tree.
- Bark bluish black in color.
- Flowers small, Creamy white in color.
- Pods dark brown in color with 12-30 seeds
- Seeds dark, reddish brown in color.
- It is common throughout the greater parts of India.
Habitat : Deciduous forest
Soil : Prefers a fertile, moisture-retentive but well-drained soil
Soil pH : 4.5 - 7.5
Altitude :750 – 2200 m(MSL)
Rainfall :1000 - 5000mm.
Temperature : 38 - 48°c
Terrain : Plains/hilly
Tree Characteristics :
- Strong light demander and intolerant of suppression.
- Frost tender and drought resistant.
- Tree coppies well
Habit : Deciduous Tree
Natural Regeneration :
- Propagated by seed but not satisfactory.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Propagated by nursery raised seedlings.
Seed collection and Storage :
- The pods are plucked off from trees in the month of January-March.
- Dried in the sun to extract seeds.
- About 7-8 seeds weigh per gram.
- Seeds are viable for one year.
- The germination capacity 60-70 %
- Cold water treatment for 24 hours.
Seed Treatment :
- No seed treatment is required.
Nursery Technique :
- Seeds are directly soil in poly bags filled with sandy loam and FYM.
- Bags are watered regularly.
- It should be kept weed free.
- 6 month old seedlings are fit for planting out.
Plantation technique :
- It is the best method, sown in lines or patches during the onset of monsoon.
Nursery raised Seedlings :
- Planting out is carried out during July in 30 cm3 pits,
- Under dry conditions, pit size of 60 cm3 with a spacing of 3x3 m.
- Planting should be carried out after the commencement of monsoon.
Care & Disease Control :
- Regular weeding and soil working are essential for proper establishment of seedlings.
For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.
Recommended Harvest :
- 20-70 years
- Leaves are collected twice a year in Apirl and May and September and October.
- Trees are pollarded on a 3 year cycle for production of a good flush of leaves.
Major uses :
- It is used as good fuel.
- Bark is useful for dyeing and fiber making.
- It yields medicinal gum.
- The leaves are used for bidi making.
- Wood is used locally for making agricultural implements.
Other uses :
The inner bark yields a bast fibre that can be made into rude cordage, but which soon rots in water.The wood is not much used, though it makes a good fuel.
Carbon stock :