General Information :
- It is a medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall
- The leaves are long, pinnate, with numerous, crowded leaflets.
- Flowers are unisexual, minute and creamy white in color.
- Fruits are Fibrous, ovoid yellow to orange or red when ripe, contain the betel nut.
- Cultivated from India to the Solomon Islands and less commonly in Africa and Tropical America.
- Poor drought tolerant, light demander and shade demander
Natural Regeneration :
- Natural regeneration is not satisfactory.
- Propagated by nursery raised seedlings.
- The selection of proper planting material is of almost importance as it is pernnial crop
- Fruits are harvested when bright red or yellow to yellow orange in color.
- Betel nut can be stored for few days without losing viability.
- Planting within 7 days after harvest is advisable.
- No Pre – planting treatment is required.
- Fruits are planted whole, with the husk.
- Dried fruits are not viable.
- Seeds sown at a spacing of 5 - 6 cm apart in sand beds under partial shade with their stalk end pointing upwards.
- After the sprouts have produced two to three leaves, they are transplanted to a polythene bag 30 x 10 cm filled with forest soil and are allowed to grow for 12 to 18 months under partial shade.
- The seedlings can also be transplanted in secondary nursery beds with a spacing of 30 cm on either side.
- Periodical watering should be given.
- Dwarf and compact seedlings with more number of leaves should be selected.
- Seedlings of 1 - 2 years age are planted in pits of about 90 cm x 90 cm x 90 cm at a spacing of 2.75 m either way and covered with soil to the collar level and pressed around.
- Provide shade during summer months.
- Growing Banana or other crops in advance may also provide shade.
- Weeding is done twice or thrice a year by spade digging.
- Wherever the land is sloppy, terracing has to be done to prevent soil erosion.
"Irrigate weekly once during November – February, once in 4 days during March – May. Flood irrigation 175 lit/ tree/ day. In drip irrigation 16 – 20 lit/ tree/ day. "Recommended Harvest :
- The bearing starts after 5 years of planting.
- Nuts are harvested when they are three quarters ripe.
- The number of harvests will vary from three to five in one year depending upon the season and place of cultivation.
- An average of about 1250 kg/ha can be obtained.
- Cocoa, black pepper, coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, clove and citrus
- Nut. Leaf vegetable, Fiber
Rs. 39000/quintalCarbon stock :