बूंद-बूंद सिंचाई पद्धति - एक परिचय

By Vikaspedia on 25 Nov 2017 | read
    05

introduction


Irrigation can be done only by irrigation water provided by the present method, only 50 percent of the total area of agriculture land, whereas on micro irrigation method (drip irrigation), the yield of water is increased to 30-50 percent as well as increase in yield. May go.

Though by nature we have received abundance of water, but due to the condition of land, quality of water and other factors, only a small part of the available water is being brought into the use of human society. Scientists have estimated that the entire surface and underground water which can be exploited by the end of this century can be utilized by the end of this century and about 1130-15 million hectares of land should be irrigated with existing irrigation methods. May be.


Drip irrigation (drop-down irrigation)

Considering the actual water demand of the plants keeping in mind the requirements of this new method of irrigation, its income, size, area, location of land and climate related requirements, the correct amount of water, the correct location, That is, the plants give effective root areas. Soluble nutrients and chemical compost may also be diluted in water to the roots of the plants when needed. In this method, the quantity of water can be used by drains to the roots of plants from the sources of special type of emitting device (dripers, microscinchlers, microsperers etc.) Is controlled. Usually the dripers (tubes, pressing vibrating, fixed discharge), micro sprinkler, microscopyers, bubbler, bai-wall and other types of emission devices are used in accordance with land, location and crop requirements. . This method mainly consists of fruits, gardens, In the queue has been found useful in irrigating vegetables and sugarcane. This method has resulted in significant increase in the yield of various crops along with significant savings in water. Which is given in Table 1.


Table 1. Increase in crop yield and save water

The order

crop

water saving (%)

Yield increase (%)

1

grapes

65-70

30

2

Pomegranate

50-55

30

3

guava

55-60

25

4

Apple

50-55

20

5

Coconut

65

12

6

Lemon

81

35

7

banana

77

-

8

Sugarcane

30-60

20-29

9

papaya

-

77

10

tomatoes

30-79

5-43

11

eggplant

55-80

17-5

12

potato

-

46

13

Cauliflower

39-60

23-4

14

Bhindi

49-84

7-13

 

Structure of drip irrigation system

In the drip irrigation method, the initial filter attached to the water source, the secondary filter, and the outlet of PVC. Or HDPE The main and subsidiary drains (pipe) are laid underground in the field. Thin litteral grooves are spread from 12 millimeters to 20 millimeters in direct lines (through queara trees) above the ground, it is subdivided (underground) above the ground. These litteral drains dripers (emitting) are directly applied by thin tapes or so that the irrigation of the water in the root area of the plants is in the form of drop-drop. Some dripers have direct lines in the drains.

Benefits of drip irrigation method

  • On average, saving of 30-50 percent of the water and the possibility of irrigating 30-50 percent more land with this surviving water.
  • Increase in average 10-20 percent yield as well as improvement in quality.
  • Proper use of fertilizers, nutrients and medicines by Partgesen (fertilization)
  • weed control.
  • Useful in rubbish and alkaline land
  • Useful in Early Crop Recovery
  • Reduction in care, chemical fertilizers, wages and other expenses.
  • Time saving
  • Workers in saltwater.
  • Energy Saving.

Operation and Maintenance of drip irrigation system

The drip method gives us the maximum benefit, whether it is necessary or that we keep on taking care of him regularly, such care can be done in two ways:

1. Care of everyday

2. Care of per week

Daily care

  1. Before giving water to the crop every day, run the pump and retract it for five minutes. Backwash i.e - method of releasing water from high pressure in the opposite direction to normal flow of water. This is done so that if there is any kind of dirt stored in the sand filter on the first day, it will come out with water and it can be easily removed.
  2. Clear the garbage deposited in the spherical lattice of the screen filter (opening up the drain valve above) of the scheme filter.
  3. After turning on the drip method, take a look at all the fields and check whether all the dripers are operational, whether the water pressure is fine, whether the soil moisture proof is suitable, or if the water is not drip from any lattrale Stayed? Investigation of these small things is necessary so that the problem can be solved immediately.

Care of per week

  1. The sand filter should be cleaned by hand and chemical process per week.
  2. स्क्रीन फिल्टर के फिल्टर एलिमेन्ट की सफाई भी सप्ताह में एक बार अवश्य कर लेनी चाहिए।
  3. सप्ताह में एक बार अथवा आवश्यकता के अनुरूप “लश वाल्व” को खोलकर सहायक पाईप की सफाई जरूरी होती है।
  4. प्रति सप्ताह लैटरल्स एंड प्लग निकालकर लैटरल्स और सारे ड्रिपर्स की सफाई कर लेनी चाहिए अगर उपरोक्त रूप से हर रोज तथा हर सप्ताह देखभाल संबंधी सूचनाओं का पूरा अमल करें तो ड्रिप पद्धति 80 से 85 प्रतिशत तक बगैर तकलीफ के अपनी सेवाएं देती है। ड्रिप पद्धति की ज्यादातर मुश्किलें अक्सर इन्ही छोटी-छोटी बातों की लापरवाही के कारण पैदा होती है। अगर देखभाल संबंधी कदम शुरू से ही उठाते हैं, तो इसका उपयोग कारगर होगा।

ड्रिप सिंचाई पद्धति पर खर्च

ड्रिप सिंचाई पद्धति पर लगनेवाला खर्च मुख्यत: फसल की कतार से कतार एवं पौधे से पौधे की दूरी पर निर्भर करता है। फलदार वृक्षों में लागत कम और सब्जियों में ज्यादा आती है। विभिन्न फसलों में ड्रिप पद्धति लगाने की लागत का विवरण तालिका 2 में दर्शाया गया है।

Details of profit and expenditure from drip irrigation

On the basis of drip irrigation method, economic study of various crops showed the ratio of profit-expenditure (not including water saving), between 1.35 to 11.52 and water saving, between 2.78-27.08, shown in Table 3. .

Table 2. Details of application of drip irrigation system

crop

Line of queue and plant with queue (m)

Cost (Rs per ha)

Mango, litchi, chikoo

10 x10

16,000.00

Lemonade fruit

6 x 6

25,000.00

Guava, pomegranate

5 x 5

26,000.00

grapes

3 x 2

36,000.00

banana

2 x 2

38,000.00

The vegetables

1 x 1

50,000.00

 

Table 3. Details of benefits and expenditure from drip irrigation

crop

Leaving water saving

Cost (Rs per ha)

grapes

11.52

27.08

banana

1.52

3.02

Lemonade fruit

1.76

6.01

Orange

2.60

11.05

Pomegranate

1.31

40.4

Sugarcane

1.31

2.78

The vegetables

1.35

3.09

Source: Department of Agriculture, Jharkhand Government

 

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