Agricultural Processing - Value Additions Equipment's

By TamilNadu Agricultural University on 05 Feb 2019 | read
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                                    Equipments for Value Addition

1.Household Paddy Parboiling UnitImage title

1. Function                              : To parboil paddy uniformly.
2. Specification                                   
   (a) Overall dimension           : 650 x 900
         (D x H ) mm
   (b) Capacity                         : 125 kg/batch
   (c) Power required               : 5 kg of firewood/batch
3. General Information                       
            The parboiling drum is made of galvanized iron sheet of 20 gauge thickness with a lid.  The drum is divided into three equal portions.  The top two-third portion retains paddy for parboiling and bottom one-third portion holds water to produce steam for parboiling.  A perforated slanting sheet with perforated pipes separates the steam chamber from parboiling chamber.  The lateral perforated pipes attached to the main steam pipe divides the entire parboiling chamber into a number of small compartments and helps for uniform and simultaneous parboiling of paddy. Perforated sloping floor helps for natural unloading of parboiled paddy.  The water in the drum can be heated by burning firewood or any agricultural waste.  After the completion of parboiling, the remaining hot water can be used for next batch.
4. Cost of the unit (approx)    : Rs.4,500/-
5. Cost of operation                : Rs.7/h
6. Salient features

  • Uniform parboiling and increased head rice recovery is possible.
  • Times 45 minutes for parboiling the first batch of soaked paddy and 25 minutes for the subsequent batches.
  • It can also be used as a storage bin, when not used for parboiling.

2.Cassava Chipper 

1. Function                                         : To cut / slice the cassava into chips.
2. Specification                                   
   (a) Overall dimension                   : 660 x 350 x 450
          (L x B x H, mm)  
   (b) Capacity                                     : 270 kg/h
   (c) Power required                         : 0.5 hp electric motor
3. General Information                      

            The chipper mainly consists of a feed hopper with guides, chipping disc with knives and chips outlet.  The feed hopper is provided with vertical guides made up of pipes of diameter varying from 25 to 80 mm for 100 mm length to facilitate feeding of tubers of different diameters.  There are three numbers of sharp chipping blades fixed radically on the circular chipping disc.  The chipping disc is mounted at the top of the vertical shaft and rotates at 300 rpm.  The clearance between the disc and the chipping blade can be varied to obtain desired thickness of the chips.  The tubers fed through the guides of the feed hopper reach the chipping disc and get sliced by the knives.  The chips are discharged through the inclined chips outlet.
4. Cost of the unit (approx)                : Rs.15,000/-
5. Cost of operation                            : Rs.5/h
6. Salient features

  • Power operated vertical feed type chipper.
  • The rotating blades of the unit slice the tuber.
  • Suitable for other tuber crops  like carrot, potato, etc

3.Turmeric Boiler

Image title                                                          Turmeric Boiler

1. Function To boil the turmeric rhizomes under hygienic condition
2. Specification
(i) Overall dimension
(L x B x H, mm)
 900 x 450 x 600
(ii) Capacity 16 quintals / day
(ii) Power required   10 kg. of fire wood / batch
3. General Information It consists of one rectangular, larger size, solid outer container, made out of 20 g G.I. sheet to hold water and two to three  inner containers to hold rhizomes. Washed rhizomes are loaded in the inner cylinder and required quantity of water is added in the outer cylinder.  Rhizomes are boiled by the steam liberated from the boiling water.  Sodium bicarbonate is added in the boiling water to ad colour.  The inside containers which hold turmeric can easily be taken out without wasting boiling water, which can be reused and thereby fuel requirement can be considerably reduced
4. Cost of the unit (Approximate) Rs.10, 000/-
5. Cost of operation Rs.6/h
6. Sailent Features 
  • Enhanced boiling and improvement in colour.
  • Less fuel requirement.
  • Reduces drying time

4.FISH FEED PELLETIZER 

1. Function                              : To produce water stable pellets.

2. Specification                                   
   (a) Overall dimension       : 385 x 380 x 465
         (L x B x H, mm)

   (b) Capacity                         : 10 kg of fish feed/h

   (c) Power required             : 0.5 hp electric motor

3. General Information                      

The pelletizer consists of a feed hopper, barrel assembly with screw auger and die.  The cooked material is pressed through the die by the screw auger and pellets are formed.  The pellets obtained from this unit are to be dried before feeding to the fishes.The various ingredients of the fish feed, like, Rice bran (6%) by weight, groundnut oil cake (20%), Tapioca flour (10%), Silk worm pupae (5%) and Fish waste (5%) are mixed well and cooked for a short time before it is fed into the pelletizer. 

4. Cost of the unit (approx)  : Rs.37,500/-

5. Cost of operation              : Rs.5/h

6. Salient features

  • Pellets of varying sizes can be produced.
  • The pellets are water stable
  • Feeds of various ingredients can be extruded as pellets. 

  •                                                         Value Addition Technologies

1.Vacuum Packaging of Banana 

Image title


1. Function                              : To  pack and store the banana to delay ripening

2. Specification                       
   (a) Power required             :    0.5 hp for the vacuum packaging machine

3. General Information                       
Banana ripes in three to five days after harvesting.  Ripening during the long distance transport and export, results in huge post harvest losses.  To delay ripening of fruits, vacuum packaging is one of the methods, where the matured banana hands are packaged and prevented from contact with air/ oxygen.  Using a simple gadget for vacuum packaging, banana can be stored under vacuum. This delays ripening upto 21 days and further ripening is completed with in one week after opening the package.

4. Cost of the unit (Approx)  : Rs. 1,50,000 (cost of the vacuum packaging machine)

5. Cost of operation              : Rs.  15/h

6. Salient features

  • The vacuum packaged banana can be stored without ripening upto 21 days.
  • No residues of chemicals are found.
  • The quality is not affected.

2.Technology of Production of Tomato PasteImage title

1. Function                               : To process tomato into concentrate form 
2. Specification                                   
   (a) Capacity                           : Depending on the production capacity 
   (b) Power required              : Based on capacity
3. General Information                      

            This technology aims at processing and preservation of glut season tomato for use during the off-season. Hybrid tomatoes, suitable for the production of tomato concentrate/ paste, are made into pulp in a pulper.  The pulp is concentrated to paste (25° Brix) in an open steel vessel/ a steam kettle.  Sodium benzoate is added as preservative @ 250 ppm  and  packed for storage.  

4. Cost of the unit                   : Rs. 3 lakhs is the investment for a minimum capacity. 
5. Cost of operation                : Rs.   35 per kg of paste (including cost of raw material)

6. Salient features

  • The paste recovery is 14%
  • Can be stored upto six months in bottles and pouches and upto one year in cans 
  • Most suited during the market glut, when the process go down.
  • Tomato paste can be used during off-season
  • Paste is suitable for the manufacture of other products from tomato.

3.Technology for Extrusion Cooking of Finger MilletsImage title

1. Function                                         : To produce value added products from millets.

2. Specification                                  
   (a) Overall dimension                       :  960 x 750 x 600 
         (L x B x H, mm)
   (b) Capacity                                    :  10-20 kg/h
   © Power required                           :   7.5 hp electric motor

3. General Information                      
            Extrusion cooking is a process of value addition of cereals and other grains for the production of the value added products, the extrudates. For the extrusion cooking of finger millet (ragi) flours, a single screw laboratory model extruder is required.  The flour is conditioned to a  moisture content for about 22% (wb), one hour prior to the extrusion.  During conditioning, cassava flour to a level of 20% is added to increase the expansion, crispiness and acceptability.  Extrusion is done at barrel temperature and screw speed  115ºC and 225 rpm, respectively.  

4. Cost of the unit (Approximate)      : Rs.1, 00,000/-

5. Cost of operation                          : Rs.15 per kg

6. Salient features

  • Value addition of finger millets
  • Finds industrial application for finger millet
  • Other millets can also be extruded.

4.Packaging of Tomatoes in Corrugated Carton Boxes Image title

 

1. Function                                          : To package the tomatoes suitable for handling.

2. Specification                                   
   (a) Overall dimension                   :  Sizes depending on the pack size. 
         (L x B x H )
   (b) Capacity                                     :  0.5, 1.0 and 2 kg packs.

3. General Information                       
            In this system of packaging, compartments are provided in the corrugated carton boxes for each fruit.  By this, the load of the tomato from top layers, due to self weight is not transmitted to the tomato in the bottom layers.  For packaging of tomatoes using carton boxes, the dimensions of the boxes and the compartment are designed for two grades classified according to diameter, with 50 – 60 mm as first grade, 40 – 50 mm diameter as second grade.  These corrugated carton boxes with compartments developed for 0.5, 1 and 2 kg packs were evaluated for losses during handling and transportation.  The total losses were only 14 and 18% for the hybrids and improved varieties.  This reduction in the total loss is achieved by packing the tomatoes by the farmers in these boxes and not opened in the market network till it reaches the customers.

4. Cost of the unit (approx)              : Rs. 4.00 per kg.

5. Salient features

  • Packaging is made of corrugated carton boxes, which are easily degradable and recyclable.
  • Use of carton boxes in place of wooden crates preserves the forest.
  • Handling for sorting and packing is avoided at various stages of market network.
  • The farmers can grade and pack in the boxes and without opening and further handling in the market network it
  • can reach the consumers.
  • The post harvest loss is reduced to 18 and 14% for improved varieties and hybrid against 32 and 25% in the traditional method using bamboo baskets.
  • This method of packaging is more suitable during the seasons with higher selling price.


5.TNAU Insect Trap Image title


1. Function                            : To utilize cir pith for the production of particle board
2. Specification                    :
   (a) Overall dimension     :    27 mm diameter and 150 mm long 
         (L x B x H )
   (b) Capacity                       :   Suitable for a bin holding upto 25-50 kg.
3. General Information       :

The basic characteristics of the stored product insects, viz., affinity towards air, tendency to move towards aerated region, wander in the grain and active during dusk and dawn have been exploited in the development of the trap. The stored grain insects, like red flour beetle, saw toothed beetle, rice weevil, paddy moth, turmeric beetle, drug  beetle, pulse beetle, groundnut bruchid, dermestid beetles, flat grain beetles, etc  with the behaviour of wandering in the bulk grain, reach the insect trap. These insects will enter the trap through the perforations and reach the stem of the trap. In the stem, as the insects cannot move upward and escape, they move towards the bottom and reach the pit fall placed at the bottom. 
4. Cost of the unit (approx)    :  Rs.75/-
5. Salient features

  • Suited only for bin storage.
  • 2 or 3 traps can be placed at 15 to 20 cm depth in a bin of 30 to 45 cm diameter and 25 kg capacity for maximum benefit.
  • No insecticide is used in this trapping technique.
  • Easy to handle and maintenance free.

6.Pelletizer for Fish Meal

Function                              :           Preparation of fish meal pellets 
Specifications

  • Type                          :           Power operated, extrusion type continuous pellitizer
  • Overall dimensions     :           500 mm x 400 mm x 400 mm


Test Results

  • Suitability for products:          Fish meal
  • Capacity                    :           10 kg/h (fish meal)
  • Power requirement     :           0.5 hp electric motor
  • Labour requirement    :           One
  • Cost of equipment      :           Rs 2,800
  • Cost of pellitisation     :           Rs 36.60/q of fish meal

Salient Features: 
            The pelletizer consists of a feed hopper, a barrel, a screw auger, a perforated dis   V belts, chain and frame. The fish meal which is generally a mixture of rice bran (60 %), groundnut oil cake (20%), tapioca flour (10%), silkworm pupa (5%) and fish waste (5%) is cooked for a suitable duration and then fed into the pelletizer. Normally pallets of 3mm diameter and 10mm length are produced by this unit. However, peilrts of varying sizes can also be made by replacing the disc with other one having desir size of holes. The pellets are to be dried before feeding to fishes,




 

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